NPDP 术语大全

NPDP小编 扫地僧 2023-2-1 676


Agile product development / 敏捷产品开发

Agile product development:    an iterative approach to product development that is performed in a collaborative environment by self- organizing teams.



Alliance / 联盟

Alliance: Formal arrangement with a separate company for purposes of development, and involving exchange of information, hardware, intellectual property, or enabling technology. Alliances involve shared risk and reward (e.g., co-development projects). (See also Chapter 11 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

联盟: 为了项目开发,与另一个独立公司达成正式协议,涉及信息、硬件、知识产权或其他技术的交流。联盟包括共担风险和分享利润(如共同开发项目 )。
(见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第十一章)。


Alpha Test / 阿尔法验证

Alpha Test: Pre-production product testing to find and eliminate the most obvious design defects or deficiencies, usually in a laboratory setting or in some part of the developing firm’s regular operations, although in some cases it may be done in controlled settings with lead customers. See also beta test and gamma test.

阿尔法验证: 在产品开始生产前,对样品进行测试,目的是发现并消除明显的设计缺陷与不足。测试通常在实验室或公司的常规运营环境中进行,有时也在控制条件下面向最初消费者展开。参加见“贝塔验证”和“伽马验证”。
Alpha Testing / 阿尔法测试

Alpha Testing: A crucial “first look” at the initial design, usually done in-house. The results of the Alpha test either confirm that the product performs according to its specifications or uncovers areas where the product is deficient. The testing environment should try to simulate the conditions under which the product will actually be used as closely as possible.



Analyzer / 分析者

Analyzer: A firm that follows an imitative innovation strategy, where the goal is to get to market with an equivalent or slightly better product very quickly once someone else opens up the market, rather than to be first to market with new products or technologies.
Sometimes called an imitator or a “fast follower.”

分析者:采用模仿创新策略的公司,其目标是,对手产品一旦打开市场,他们就迅速向市场投放相似的或更好的产品,而不第一个推出新产品或新 技术。他们往往被称为模仿者或“快速跟随者”。


Applications Development / 应用开发

Applications Development: The iterative process through which software is designed and written to meet the needs and requirements of the user base or the process of enhancing or developing new products.

Architectural innovation / 架构创新

Architectural innovation: Combines technological and business disruptions. A well-quoted example is digital photography, which caused significant disruption for companies such as Kodak and Polaroid.

架构创新:结合技术和业务破坏。 一个引用很好的例子是数字摄影,这对柯达和宝丽来公司造成了严重影响。


Attribute Testing / 属性测试

Attribute Testing: A quantitative market research technique in which respondents are asked to rate a detailed list of product or category attributes on one or more types of scales such as relative importance, current performance, current satisfaction with a particular product or service, for the purpose of ascertaining customer preferences for some attributes over others, to help guide the design and development process. Great care and rigor should be taken in the development of the list of attributes, and it must be neither too long for the respondent to answer comfortably or too short such that it lumps too many ideas together at too high a level.



Audit / 审计

Audit: When applied to new product development, an audit is an appraisal of the effectiveness of the processes by which the new product was developed and brought to market.

审计:新产品开发流程中,针对新产品开发和市场发布流程的有效性评价。(参见 PDMA 工具书 1 第十四章)
Augmented Product / 延伸产品

Augmented Product: The Core Product, plus all other sources of product benefits, such as service, warranty, and image.

延伸产品 : 核心产品,可创造产品收益的其他因素,如服务、保修和形象等。


Autonomous Team / 自主型团队

Autonomous Team: A completely self-sufficient project team with very little, if any, link to the funding organization. Frequently used as an organizational model to bring a radical innovation to the marketplace. Sometimes called a “tiger” team.



Awareness / 知名度

Awareness: A measure of the percent of target customers who are aware that the new product exists. Awareness is variously defined, including recall of brand, recognition of brand, recall of key features or positioning.



Balanced portfolio / 平衡组合

Balanced portfolio: a collection of projects where the proportion of projects in specific categories is directed according to strategic priorities.

Benchmarking / 基准化分析法

Benchmarking: A process of collecting process performance data, generally in a confidential, blinded fashion, from a number of organizations to allow them to assess their performance individually and as a whole.



Benefit / 利益

Benefit: A product attribute expressed in terms of what the user gets from the product rather than its physical characteristics or features. Benefits are often paired with specific features, but they need not be.



Best Practice / 最佳实践

Best Practice: Methods, tools or techniques that are associated with improved performance. In new product development, no one tool or technique assures success; however, a number of them are associated with higher probabilities of achieving success. Best practices likely are at least somewhat context specific. Sometimes called “effective practice.”

最佳实践:应用方法、工具或技术用来提高绩效的活动。在新产品开发中,不能只用一种工具或技术来确保成功,而应综合系列方法以增加成功几 率。最佳实践方法还要依环境而定,有时被称为“有效实践”。


Best Practice Study / 最佳实践研究

Best Practice Study: A process of studying successful organizations and selecting the best of their actions or processes for emulation.
In new product development it means finding the best process practices, adapting them and adopting them for internal use. (See Chapter 36 in the    PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition, Chapter 33 in    The PDMA HandBook, Griffin, “PDMA Research on New Product Development Practices: Updating Trends and Benchmarking Best Practices,”        JPIM, 14:6, 429-458, November, 1997, and “Drivers of NPD Success: The 1997 PDMA Report,” PDMA, October, 1997)

最佳实践研究:对成功机构进行分析、效仿的最佳实践法。在新产品的开发中, 这意味着寻找并调整最佳的过程实践法来加以利用。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第三十六章,PDMA 新产品开发手册第三十三章,Griffin, “基于新产品开发实践的新产品开发研究:日益更新的趋势和基准化分析最佳实
践”“JPIM, 14:6,429—458,11 月,1997,新产品开发成功的驱动者:
1997PDMA 报告”PDMA,10 月,1997)


Beta Testing / 贝塔测试

Beta Testing: A more extensive test than the Alpha, performed by real users and customers. The purpose of Beta testing is to determine how the product performs in an actual user environment. It is critical that real customers perform this evaluation, not the firm developing the product or a contracted testing company. As with the Alpha test, results of the Beta Test should be carefully evaluated with an eye toward any needed modifications or corrections.



Big data / 大数据

Big data: extremely large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions.

Bottom up portfolio selection / 自下而上的产品组合筛选

Bottom up portfolio selection: starts first with a list of individual projects and through a process of strict project evaluation and screening ends up with a portfolio of strategically aligned projects.



Brainstorming / 头脑风暴法

Brainstorming: A group method of creative problem-solving frequently used in product concept generation. There are many modifications in format, each variation with its own name. The basis of all of these methods uses a group of people to creatively generate a list of ideas related to a particular topic. As many ideas as possible are listed before any critical evaluation is performed. (See Chapters 16 and 17 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

头脑风暴法:经常在新产品概念生成阶段应用的创造性解决问题的多种方法。方法形式各异,各有称谓。共同点是让人们在决定性评估前提出尽可 能多的创意。(参见 PDMA 指导手册第 12 和 13 章)


Brand / 品牌

Brand: A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is    trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller.

Break-even Point / 盈亏平衡点

Break-even Point: The point in the commercial life of a product when cumulative development costs are recovered through accrued profits from sales.



Break-even Point / 盈亏平衡点

Break-even Point: The point in the commercial life of a product when cumulative development costs are recovered through accrued profits from sales.



Breakthrough projects / 突破性项目

Breakthrough projects (sometimes referred to as radical or disruptive). These projects strive to bring a new product to the market with new technologies; depart significantly from existing organizational practices; and have a high level of risk.

突破性项目(有时被称为激进或破坏性项目)。 这些项目致力于用新技术将新产品推向市场; 明显偏离现有的组织惯例; 并具有高水平的风险。


Business Analysis / 商业分析

Business Analysis: An analysis of the business situation surrounding a proposed project. Usually includes financial forecasts in terms of discounted cash flows, net present values or internal rates of returns.


Business Case / 商业案例

Business Case: The results of the market, technical and financial analyses, or up-front homework. Ideally defined just prior to the “go to development” decision (gate), the case defines the product and project, including the project justification and the action or business plan. (See Chapter 21 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

商业案例:市场技术和财务分析的结果,理论上应在“开发”决策之前执行。它具体定义了产品和项目,包括项目合理性,行动或商业计划。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 21 章)


Business-to-Business / 企业对企业模式

Business-to-Business: Transactions with non-consumer purchasers such as manufacturers, resellers (distributors, wholesalers, jobbers and retailers, for example) institutional, professional and governmental organizations. Frequently referred to as “industrial” businesses in the past.

企业对企业模式:与非消费者,如制造商、销售商(分销商、批发商、临时商和零售商)、专业或政府组织发生的商业关系。过去常常指工业企业 。


Buyer / 买方

Buyer: The purchaser of a product, whether or not he or she will be the ultimate user. Especially in business-to-business markets, a purchasing agent may contract for the actual purchase of a good or service, yet never benefit from the function(s) purchased.

买方:产品的购买者,但不一定是最终消费者。尤其是在企业对企业模式市场, 购买机构可能签订实际购买产品或服务的合同,但并不使用购买的 产品或服务。
Cannibalization / 抢食效应

Cannibalization:    That portion of the demand for a new product that comes from the erosion of the demand for (sales of) a current product the firm markets. (See Chapter 34 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

抢食效应:因放弃现有产品而转向新产品的需求比重。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 34 章)


Capacity Planning / 能力规划

Capacity Planning: A forward-looking activity that monitors the skill sets and effective resource capacity of the organization. For product development, the objective is to manage the flow of projects through development such that none of the functions (skill sets) creates a bottleneck to timely completion. Necessary in optimizing the project portfolio.



Carbon credits / 碳信用

Carbon credits:    By a simple Cost of Goods calculation the indirect cost from Externalities (effects of a product or service on other people than the producer and user) are not reflected. This can be CO2, but also social impact. Integrating all externalities in your (shadow) price gives the “Real Price”.

碳信用:通过简单的货物成本计算,外部因素的间接成本(产品或服务对生产者和用户以外的其他人的影响)没有反映。 这可以是二氧化碳,但也有社会影响。 在你的(阴影)价格中整合所有外部性给出了“实际价格”。
Cash cows / 现金牛

Cash cows: products that have a high share of a market which has low overall growth



Centers of Excellence / 卓越中心

Centers of Excellence: A geographic or organizational group with an acknowledged technical, business, or competitive competency.



Certification / 认证

Certification: A process for formally acknowledging that someone has mastered a body of knowledge on a subject. In new product development, the PDMA has created and manages a certification process to become a New Product Development Professional (NPDP).

认证:正式确认某人已经掌握某种知识体系。在新产品开发中,PDMA 创造并管理着新产品开发专业(NPDP)的认证流程。


Champion / 拥护者

Champion: A person who takes a passionate interest in seeing that a particular process or product is fully developed and marketed. This informal role varies from situations calling for little more than stimulating awareness of the opportunity to extreme cases where the champion tries to force a project past the strongly entrenched internal resistance of company policy or that of objecting parties. (see Chapter 5 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1st Edition.)
拥护者:热切渴望某一过程或产品得到开发并投放市场的人。他们的角色是激发人们抓住机遇的意识,使受到公司政策限制和或遭到反对的项目得以进行。(参加 PDMA 工具书 1 第 5 章)


Charter / 章程

Charter: A project team document defining the context, specific details, and plans of a project. It includes the initial business case, problem and goal statements, constraints and assumptions, and preliminary plan and scope. Periodic reviews with the sponsor ensure alignment with business strategies. (see also Product Innovation Charter)

章程:用来定义项目背景,具体细节和计划的项目团队文件,包括初始商业案 例、问题与目标陈述,限制、假设以及主要计划和远景。开发商的定 期复查可确保开发活动与经营战略相吻合。(参加“产品创新”章节)


Checklist / 审核清单

Checklist: A list of items used to remind an analyst to think of all relevant aspects. It finds frequent use as a tool of creativity in concept generation, as a factor consideration list in concept screening, and to ensure that all appropriate tasks have been completed in any stage of the product development process.



Circular economy /  循环经济

Circular economy: an economy that is restorative and regenerative by design, and which aims to keep products, components and materials at their highest utility and value at all times, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles.


Cluster sampling / 聚类抽样

Cluster sampling: the population is divided into clusters and a sample of clusters is taken.



Collaborative Product Development / 协同产品开发

Collaborative Product Development: When two firms work together to develop and commercialize a specialized product.

小公司可以提供技术或创造性的知识,大公司可以提供资金,市场和分销渠 道。两个规模相当的公司合作,他们分别可以提供一些专门技术来共同开发某些高复杂性的产品或系统。协同产品开发有很多形式。
在客户协同方面,供应商可以接触到合伙人提供的关键客户。在供应商合作方面,公司合伙人和技术组件服务提供者一起创造整合型解决方法。在合作生产中,公司和生产合伙人一起协同生产目标产品。协同开发依合作的深度而不 同,他们在为目标消费者提供最终方案的过程中是联系在一起。


Co-location / 人员共置

Co-location: Physically locating project personnel in one area, enabling more rapid and frequent decision-making and communication among them.



Commercialization / 商业化

Commercialization: The process of taking a new product from development to market. It generally includes production launch and
ramp-up, marketing materials and program development, supply chain development, sales channel development, training development, training, and service and support development. (See Chapter 30
of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).



Competitive Intelligence / 竞争智慧

Competitive Intelligence: Methods and activities for transforming disaggregated public competitor information into relevant and strategic knowledge about competitors’ position, size, efforts and trends. The term refers to the broad practice of collecting, analyzing, and communicating the best available information on competitive trends occurring outside one’s own company.



Concept / 概念

Concept: A clearly written and possibly visual description of the new product idea that includes its primary features and consumer benefits, combined with a broad understanding of the technology needed.



Concept Generation / 概念生成

Concept Generation: The processes by which new concepts, or product ideas, are generated. Sometimes also called idea generation or ideation. (See Chapters 15 and 17 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第 12,13 章)


Concept Screening / 概念筛选

Concept Screening: The evaluation of potential new product concepts during the discovery phase of a product development project.
Potential concepts are evaluated for their fit with business strategy, technical feasibility, manufacturability, and potential for financial success.

概念筛选:在产品开发项目的发现阶段评估潜在的新产品概念。 评估潜在概念是否适应业务战略,技术可行性,可制造性和财务成功的可能性。


Concept Statement / 概念说明

Concept Statement: A verbal or pictorial statement of a concept that is prepared for presentation to consumers to get their reaction prior to development.



Concept Testing / 概念测试

Concept Testing: The process by which a concept statement is presented to consumers for their reactions. These reactions can either be used to permit the developer to estimate the sales value of the concept or to make changes to the concept to enhance its potential sales value. (See Chapter 6 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition)

概念测试:向消费者展示概念产品以观察他们的反馈。这些反馈可以用来帮助开发者评估概念的销售价值并做出相应调整。(参加 PDMA 指导手册 第 14,15 章)
Concurrent Engineering / 并行工程

Concurrent Engineering (CE): When product design and manufacturing process development occur concurrently in an integrated fashion, using a cross-functional team, rather than sequentially by separate functions. CE is intended to cause the development team to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, and maintenance, from the project’s outset. Also called simultaneous engineering. (See Chapter
30 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

(参考《PDMA 新产品开发手册》第 1 版第 30 章)


Conjoint Analysis / 联合分析

Conjoint Analysis: Conjoint analysis is a market research technique in which respondents are systematically presented with a rotating set of product descriptions, each of which contains a rotating set of attributes and levels of those attributes. By asking respondents to choose their preferred product and/or to indicate their degree of preference from within each set of options, conjoint analysis can determine the relative contribution to overall preference of each variable and each level. The two key advantages of conjoint analysis over other methods of determining importance are: 1) the variables and levels can be either continuous (e.g. weight) or discreet (e.g. color), and 2) it is just about the only valid market research method for evaluating the role of price, i.e. how much someone would pay for a given feature (See Chapter 18 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

联合分析:联合分析是一种市场调研方法,它包含反馈者关于产品的系统描述, 包括一系列属性和属性的实现程度。要求反馈者选择他们更喜欢的 产品或明确他们的偏好,经综合分析之后可判断每个变量在多大程度上对产品整体做出贡献。与其他方法相比,联合分析的两大优点是:1 变量和 程度可以是连续的(如权重)或具体的(如颜色);2 它是评价价格作用的唯一有效的市场调研方法,如对于产品某一具体特性,人们要支付多少价格。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 18 章)
Consumer / 消费者

Consumer: The most generic and all-encompassing term for a firm’s targets. The term is used in either the business-to-business or household context and may refer to the firm’s current customers, competitors’ customers, or current non-purchasers with similar needs or demographic characteristics. The term does not differentiate between whether the person is a buyer or a user target. Only a fraction of consumers will become customers.

消费者:能囊括公司目标的一般性术语。通常用于企业对企业模式或公司内部, 包括公司现有客户,竞争者的客户,现有具备相同需求或人口特征的非购买  者。它没有明显的购买者和使用者之分,仅一小部分消费者会成为客户。


Consumer Need / 消费者需求

Consumer Need: A problem the consumer would like to have solved. What a consumer would like a product to do for them.



Consumer Panels / 消费者样本

Consumer Panels: groups of consumers in specific sectors, recruited by research companies and agencies,    who are used as respondents to answer specific research questions relating to product testing, taste testing, or other areas. Most often.        they are    a specialist panel who    take part    in    numerous projects. Consumer panels are particularly useful for short, quick surveys, where the emphasis is on a sample of those with specialist knowledge rather than a representative sample of the general population

消费者样本:是由市场研究公司和机构招募的特别挑选出的消费者群体,他们需要回答诸如产品测试,口味测试或其他领域的具体研究问题。 通常他们是一个参与众多项目的专家小组。 消费者样本对于简短,快速的调查特别有用,其重点是具有专业知识的样本,而不是一般人群的代表样本。
Contingency Plan / 应急计划

Contingency Plan: A plan to cope with events whose occurrence, timing and severity cannot be predicted.



Continuous Improvement / 持续改善

Continuous Improvement: The review, analysis and rework directed at incrementally improving practices and processes. Also called Kaizen.



Continuous Innovation / 持续创新

Continuous Innovation: A product alteration that allows improved performance and benefits without changing either consumption patterns or behavior. The product’s general appearance and basic performance do not functionally change. Examples include fluoride toothpaste and higher computer speeds.



Convergent Thinking / 聚合思维

Convergent Thinking: A technique generally performed late in the initial phase of idea generation to help funnel the high volume of ideas created through divergent thinking into a small group or single idea on which more effort and analysis will be focused.


Cooperation / 合作

Cooperation (Team Cooperation): The extent to which team members actively work together in reaching team level objectives.



Core Benefit Proposition / 核心利益主张

Core Benefit Proposition (CBP): The central benefit or purpose for which a consumer buys a product. The CBP may come either from the physical good or service, or it may come from augmented dimensions of the product. (see also Value Proposition) (See Chapter 3 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1st Edition.)

核心利益主张:消费者购买产品的主要用途。核心利益主张可来自有形产品或服务,也可来自延伸的产品领域。参见价值主张。(参见 PDMA 工具 书 1 第 3 章)


Core Competence / 核心竞争力

Core Competence: That capability at which a company does better than other firms, which provides them with a distinctive competitive advantage and contributes to acquiring and retaining customers.
Something that a firm does better than other firms. The purest definition adds “and is also the lowest cost provider.”

核心竞争力:公司优于竞争对手的能力,包括技术、组织、供应链、运营财务、市场、合作伙伴关系和其他的能力,它可以提供竞争优势并吸引和 保持消费者群体。最纯粹的定义涵盖了“最低成本供应者”。
Corporate Culture / 公司文化

Corporate Culture: The “feel” of an organization. Culture arises from the belief system through which an organization operates.
Corporate cultures are variously described as being authoritative, bureaucratic, and entrepreneurial. The firm’s culture frequently impacts the organizational appropriateness for getting things done.

公司文化:组织“感觉”。文化来自组织赖以运行的信仰系统。公司文化可以有不同的描述:权威性、组织性和企业性。公司文化往往能影响组织的  行事效果。


Corporate strategy / 公司战略

Corporate strategy: The overarching strategy of a diversified organization. It answers the questions of “in which businesses should we compete?” and “how does bringing in these businesses create synergy and /or add to the competitive advantage of the organization as a whole?”

公司战略:一个多元化组织的总体战略。 它回答了“我们应该在哪些业务中竞争”的问题,以及“如何带来这些业务创造协同效应和/或增加整个组织的竞争优势?


Creativity / 创造性

Creativity: “An arbitrary harmony, an expected astonishment, a habitual revelation, a familiar surprise, a generous selfishness, an unexpected certainty, a formable stubbornness, a vital triviality, a disciplined freedom, an intoxicating steadiness, a repeated initiation, a difficult delight, a predictable gamble, an ephemeral solidity, a unifying difference, a demanding satisfier, a miraculous expectation, and accustomed amazement.” (George M. Prince,    The Practice of Creativity, 1970) Creativity is the ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate.

创造性:“一种果断的和谐,一个预期的惊讶,一项习惯的新发现,一个熟悉的惊喜,一种慷慨的自私,一个预料之外的肯定,一种形式上的顽强 ,一件重要
的琐事,一种有节制的自由,一个令人兴奋的进步,一个重复的开始,一份辛苦的喜悦,一场可预测的赌注,一个短暂的稳固,一种一 致上的差异,一个渴望的满足者,一种奇迹的渴望以及习惯性的惊异。”(乔治 M.普林斯, 《创造性》, 1970)。 创造性是一种从事创新性工作的能力。


Criteria / 标准

Criteria: Statements of standards used by decision-makers at decision gates. The dimensions of performance necessary to achieve or surpass for product development projects to continue in development. In the aggregate, these criteria reflect a business unit’s new product strategy. (See Chapters 21 and 29 of    The PDMA ToolBook 2nd Edition.)

标准: 在决策关口,决策者对标准做出的陈述,即以保证项目继续进行而必须达到或超过的绩效。总体来说,标准反映了一个业务单元的新产品战略。(参加《PDMA 新产品开发手册》第 2 版第 21 章和第 29 章)


Critical Path / 关键路径

Critical Path: The set of interrelated activities that must be completed for the project to be finished successfully can be mapped into a chart showing how long each task takes, and which tasks cannot be started before which other tasks are completed. The critical path is the set of linkages through the chart that is the longest. It determines how long a project will take.



Critical Path Scheduling / 关键路径进度计划

Critical Path Scheduling: A project management technique, frequently incorporated into various software programs, which puts all important steps of a given new product project into a sequential network based on task interdependencies.
关键路径进度计划:一种项目控制技术,通常需要使用各种软件工具,它可以在识别各个任务的基础上,将所有新产品开发中的关键步骤连接成一 个连续网络。


Critical Success Factors / 关键成功因素

Critical Success Factors: Those critical few factors that are necessary for, but don’t guarantee, commercial success. (See Chapter 1 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).



Cross-Functional Team / 跨职能团队

Cross-Functional Team: A team consisting of representatives from the various functions involved in product development, usually including members from all key functions required to deliver a successful product, typically including marketing, engineering, manufacturing/operations, finance, purchasing, customer support, and quality. The team is empowered by the departments to represent each function’s perspective in the development process. (See Chapters 9 and 10 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition    and Chapter 6 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

跨职能团队:拥有不同职能领域代表的产品开发团队,这些职能领域通常涵盖生产成功产品的所有关键职能,一般包括营销、工程、制造、运营、财务、销  售、客户支持和质量等职能领域。团队可保证在开发过程中兼顾所有的职能。
(见 PDMA 指导手册第 9 章和 PDMA 工具书第 6 章)


Crossing the Chasm / 跨越鸿沟

Crossing the Chasm: Making the transition to a mainstream market from an early market dominated by a few visionary customers (sometimes also called innovators or lead adopters). This concept typically applies to the adoption of new, market creating technology-based products and services.

Crowdsourcing / 众包

Crowdsourcing: described as a collection of tools for obtaining information or input into a particular task or project by enlisting the services of a number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the Internet



Culture / 文化

Culture: is defined as the shared beliefs, core values, assumptions, and expectations of people in the organization.



Customer / 客户

Customer: One who purchases or uses your firm’s products or services.



Customer Needs /  客户需求

Customer Needs: Problems to be solved. These needs, either expressed or yet-to-be articulated, provide new product development opportunities for the firm. (See Chapter 14 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
客户需求:需要解决的问题。无论已提及的需求还是即将表达出来的需要,都可为公司提供新产品开发机遇。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版 第 14 章)

Customer Site Visits / 客户现场访问

Customer Site Visits: A qualitative market research technique for uncovering customer needs. The method involves going to a customer’s work site, watching as a person performs functions associated with the customer needs your firm wants to solve, and then debriefing that person about what they did, why they did those things, the problems encountered as they were trying to perform the function, and what worked well. (See Chapters 15 and 16 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

客户现场访问:一种揭示客户需求的变量市场调研方法。它要求到客户工作现场观察客户如何用产品解决问题以实现产品功能,他们要做什么,为 什么这么做,客户遇到的问题是如何解决的,如何做得更好。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 15,16 章)


Cycle Time / 周期

Cycle Time: The length of time for any operation, from start to completion. In the new product development sense, it is the length of time to develop a new product from an early initial idea for a new product to initial market sales. Precise definitions of the start and end point vary from one company to another, and may vary from one project to another within the company. (See Chapter 12 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)



Dashboard / 仪表板

Dashboard:    A typically colored graphical presentation of a project’s status or a portfolio’s status by project resembling a vehicle’s dashboard. Typically, red is used to flag urgent problems,
yellow to flag impending problems, and green to signal on projects on track.



Data / 数据

Data: Measurements taken at the source of a business process. 数据:以业务流程为来源的测量。

Database / 数据库

Database: An electronic gathering of information organized in some way to make it easy to search, discover, analyze, and manipulate.



Decision Tree / 决策树

Decision Tree: A diagram used for making decisions in business or computer programming. The “branches” of the tree diagram represent choices with associated risk s, costs, results, and outcome probabilities. By calculating outcomes (profits) for each of the branches, the best decision for the firm can be determined.



Decline Stage / 衰退阶段

Decline Stage: The fourth and last stage of the product life cycle. Entry into this stage is generally caused by technology advancements,
consumer or user preference changes, global competition or environmental or regulatory changes. (See Chapter 34 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

衰退阶段:产品生命周期中的第四个或最后一个阶段。这一阶段受到技术的进步、消费者或使用者的偏好变化、全球竞争加剧、环境或规则变化带来 的影响。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 34 章)

Defenders / 捍卫者

Defenders: Firms that stake out a product turf and protect it by whatever means, not necessarily through developing new products.



Deliverable / 可交付成果

Deliverable: The output (such as test reports, regulatory approvals, working prototypes or marketing research reports) that shows a project has achieved a result. Deliverables may be specified for the commercial launch of the product or at the end of a development stage.


Delphi Processes / 德菲法

Delphi Processes: A technique that uses iterative rounds of consensus development across a group of experts to arrive at a forecast of the most probable outcome for some future state.


Demographic / 人口统计学

Demographic: The statistical description of a human population. Characteristics included in the description may include gender, age,
education level, and marital status, as well as various behavioral and psychological characteristics.



Derivative projects / 衍生项目

Derivative projects: spin-offs from other existing products or platforms. They may fill a gap in an existing product line; offer more cost-competitive manufacturing; or offer enhancements and features based on core organization technology. Generally, they are relatively low risk

衍生项目:从其他现有产品或平台衍生出来的。 他们可能填补现有产品线的空白; 提供更具成本竞争力的制造; 或提供基于核心组织技术的增强功能。 一般来说,他们的风险相对较低

Design for Excellence / 面向卓越的设计

Design for Excellence (DFX): The systematic consideration of ALL relevant life cycle factors, such as manufacturability, reliability, maintainability, affordability, testability, etc., in the design and development process.

面向卓越的设计:在设计和开发流程中,系统考虑所有与生命周期有关因素的设计。这些因素包括可制造性、可靠性、可维护性、可供应性和可测 试性。

Design for Maintainability / 维护性设计

Design for Maintainability (DFMt): The systematic consideration of maintainability issues over the product’s projected life cycle in the design and development process.

Design for Manufacturability / 制造性设计

Design for Manufacturability (DFM): The systematic consideration of manufacturing issues in the design and development process, facilitating the fabrication of the product’s components and their assembly into the overall product.



Design for six sigma / 六西格玛的设计

Design for six sigma: the aim of DFSS is to create designs that are resource efficient, capable of exceptionally high yields, and are robust to process variations

六西格玛的设计:DFSS 的目标是创建资源效率高,能够获得极高产量的设计, 并且对于工艺变化


Design for the Environment / 面向环境的设计

Design for the Environment (DFE): The systematic consideration of environmental safety and health issues over the product’s projected life cycle in the design and development process.



Design specifications / 设计规范

Design specifications: where the concept statement provides a qualitative presentation of the product concept’s benefits and features, the product design specifications provide the quantitative basis for further design and manufacture.


Design thinking / 设计思维

Design thinking: a creative solving approach – or more completely, a systematic and collaborative approach to identify and creatively solve problems”

设计思维:创造性解决方法 – 或更完全地,一种系统和协作的方法来识别和创造性地解决问题“


Design Validation / 设计有效性

Design Validation: Product tests to ensure that the product or service conforms to defined user needs and requirements. These may be performed on working prototypes or using computer simulations of the finished product.



Development / 开发

Development: The functional part of the organization responsible for converting product requirements into a working product. Also, a phrase in the overall concept to market cycle where the new product or service is developed for the first time.

Development Teams / 开发团队

Development Teams: teams formed to take one or more new products from concept through development, testing and launch.



Discontinuous Innovation / 非连续性创新

Discontinuous Innovation: Previously unknown products that establish new consumption patterns and behavior changes. Examples include microwave ovens and the cellular phones.



Discounted Cash-Flow (DCF) Analysis / 贴现率现金流分析

Discounted Cash-Flow (DCF) Analysis: One method for providing an estimate of the current value of future incomes and expenses projected for a project. Future cash flows for a number of years are estimated for the project, and then discounted back to the present using forecast interest rates.



Dispersed Teams / 分散式团队

Dispersed Teams: Product development teams that have members working at different locations, across time zones, and perhaps even in different countries.


Disruptive innovation / 颠覆性创新

Disruptive innovation:Requires a new business model but not necessarily new technology. So, for example, Google’s Android operating system potentially disrupts companies like Apple

颠覆性创新:需要一个新的商业模式,但不一定是新技术。 因此,例如,
Google 的 Android 操作系统可能会破坏像苹果这样的公司


Distribution / 分销

Distribution (physical and channels): The method and partners used to get the product (or service) from where it is produced to where the end user can buy it.



Divergent Thinking / 发散式思维

Divergent Thinking: Technique performed early in the initial phase of idea generation that expands thinking processes to generate, record and recall a high volume of new or interesting ideas.



Early Adopters / 早期接受者

Early Adopters: For new products, these are customers who, relying on their own intuition and vision, buy into new product concepts very early in the life cycle. For new processes, these are organizational entities that were willing to try out new processes rather than just maintaining the old.


Enhanced New Product / 增强型新产品

Enhanced New Product: A form of derivative product. Enhanced products include additional features not previously found on the base platform, which provide increased value to consumers.



Entrepreneur / 企业家

Entrepreneur: A person who initiates, organizes, operates, assumes the risk and reaps the potential reward for a new business venture.



Ethnography / 人种学

Ethnography: A descriptive, qualitative market research methodology for studying the customer in relation to his or her environment.
Researchers spend time in the field observing customers and their environment to acquire a deep understanding of the lifestyles or cultures as a basis for better understanding their needs and problems. (See Customer Site Visits and Chapter 15 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

人种学:研究客户及其相关环境的描述性、定性市场调研方法。研究者在现场观察客户和环境以获得对他们的生活方式或文化环境的深刻理解,从 而更好理解他们的需求和问题。(参见客户现场访问,及 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 15 章)
Factor analysis / 因子分析

Factor analysis: a process in which the values of observed data are expressed as functions of a number of possible causes in order to find which are the most important.



Factory Cost / 制造成本

Factory Cost: The cost of producing the product in the production location including materials, labor and overhead.



Failure Rate / 失败率

Failure Rate: The percentage of a firm’s new products that make it to full market commercialization, but which fail to achieve the objectives set for them.



Feasibility analysis / 可行性分析

Feasibility analysis: the process of analyzing the likely success of a project or a new product


Feature / 特性

Feature: The solution to a consumer need or problem. Features provide benefits to consumers. The handle (feature) allows a laptop computer
to be carried easily (benefit). Usually any one of several different features will be chosen to meet a customer need. For example, a carrying case with shoulder straps is another feature that allows a laptop computer to be carried easily.



Feature Creep / 特性蔓延

Feature Creep: The tendency for designers or engineers to add more capability, functions and features to a product as development proceeds than were originally intended. These additions frequently cause schedule slip, development cost increases, and product cost increases.



Feature Roadmap / 特性路标规划图

Feature Roadmap: The evolution over time of the performance attributes associated with a product. Defines the specific features associated with each iteration/generation of a product over its lifetime, grouped into releases (sets of features that are commercialized). See also, “Product Life-Cycle Management” and “Cadence Plans”.

特性路标规划图:产品特性随时间进化。产品在其生命周期的各阶段具有不同特性(特性被商业化)。参见“产品生命周期管理”以及 Cadence 计划 。


Field Testing / 现场测试

Field Testing: Product use testing with users from the target market in the actual context in which the product will be used.


Financial Success / 财务成功

Financial Success: The extent to which a new product meets its profit, margin, and return on investment goals.

财务成功: 新产品实现所设定的利润、收益和投资回报率。


First-to-Market / 市场先行者

First-to-Market: The first product to create a new product category or a substantial subdivision of a category.



Focus Groups / 焦点小组

Focus Groups: A qualitative market research technique where 8 to 12 market participants are gathered in one room for a discussion under the leadership of a trained moderator. Discussion focuses on a consumer problem, product, or potential solution to a problem. The results of these discussions are not projectable to the general market.

焦点小组:有 8 至 12 个市场参与者在引导下进行讨论的定性市场调研方法。讨论集中在消费者、产品和问题解决方法上,讨论结果不直接映射大众市场。


Forecast / 预测

Forecast: A prediction, over some defined time, of the success or failure of implementing a business plan’s decisions derived from an
existing strategy. (See Chapter 23 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

预测:基于现有战略和商业计划决策,对于成功或失败的预测。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 23 章)


Forming / 形成

Forming: term using for the first stage in team formation where most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven’t fully understood what the team will do.

形成:在团队形成的第一阶段使用的术语,其中大多数团队成员是积极和有礼貌的。 有些人很焦虑,因为他们还没有完全理解团队会做什么。


Function / 功能

Function: (1) An abstracted description of work that a product must perform to meet customer needs. A function is something the product or service must do. (2) Term describing an internal group within which resides a basic business capability such as engineering.



Functional team / 功能团队

Functional team:    the project is divided into functional components with each component assigned to its own appropriate functional manager.    Coordination is either handled by the functional manager or by senior management.

功能团队:项目分为功能组件,每个组件分配给自己相应的功能管理器。 协调由职能经理或高级管理层处理。
Fuzzy Front End / 模糊前端

Fuzzy Front End: The messy “getting started” period of product development, when the product concept is still very fuzzy. Preceding the more formal product development process, it generally consists of three tasks: strategic planning, concept generation, and, especially, pre-technical evaluation. These activities are often chaotic, unpredictable, and unstructured. In comparison, the subsequent new product development process is typically structured, predictable, and formal, with prescribed sets of activities, questions to be answered, and decisions to be made. (See Chapter 6 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)


Gamma Test / 伽马测试

Gamma Test:    A product use test in which the developers measure the extent to which the item meets the needs of the target customers, solves the problems(s) targeted during development, and leaves the customer satisfied.



Gantt Chart / 甘特图

Gantt Chart: A horizontal bar chart used in project scheduling and management that shows the start date, end date and duration of tasks within the project.

Gap Analysis / 差距分析

Gap Analysis: The difference between projected outcomes and desired outcomes. In product development, the gap is frequently measured as the difference between expected and desired revenues or profits from currently planned new products if the corporation is to meet its objectives.



Gate / 关口

Gate: The point at which a management decision is made to allow the product development project to proceed to the next stage, to recycle back into the current stage to better complete some of the tasks, or to terminate. The number of gates varies by company. (See Chapter 21 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

关口:产品开发项目进入下一阶段的决策点,以决定是继续或停留在现阶段以更好完成任务,还是停止任务。不同公司的关口数不同。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 21 章)


Gatekeepers / 把关者

Gatekeepers: The group of managers who serve as advisors, decision- makers and investors in a Stage-Gate™ process. Using established business criteria, this multifunctional group reviews new product opportunities and project progress, and allocates resources accordingly at each gate. This group is also commonly called a Product Approval Committee or Portfolio Management Team.

Greenwashing / 绿色清洗

Greenwashing: when a company or organization spends more time and money claiming to be “green” through advertising and marketing than actually implementing business practices that minimize environmental impact.



Growth Stage / 增长阶段

Growth Stage: The second stage of the product life cycle. This stage is marked by a rapid surge in sales and market acceptance for the good or service. Products that reach the growth stage have successfully “crossed the chasm.”



Heavyweight Team / 重量级团队

Heavyweight Team: An empowered project team with adequate resourcing to complete the project. Personnel report to the team leader and are co-located as practical.



Hurdle Rate / 保底收益率

Hurdle Rate: The minimum return on investment or internal rate of return percentage a new product must meet or exceed as it goes through development.

保底收益率: 新产品必须满足或超过的最低投资回报率或内部收益率。

Ideation / 创意

Ideation:    The creative process of generating, developing, and communicating new ideas where an idea is a basic element of thought that can be either be visual, concrete or abstract.

创意:创造,发展和传达新想法的创造性过程,其中思想是思维的基本要素, 可以是视觉,具体或抽象的。


Implementation Team / 实施团队

Implementation Team: A team that converts the concepts and good intentions of the “should-be” process into practical reality.



Implicit Product Requirement / 隐含产品需求

Implicit Product Requirement: What the customer expects in a product, but does not ask for, and may not even be able to articulate.



Incremental Improvement / 渐进型改善

Incremental Improvement:    A small change made to an existing product that serves to keep the product fresh in the eyes of customers.

Information / 信息

Information:    Knowledge and insight, often gained by examining data. 信息:通过分析数据得出的知识和见解。

Initial Screening / 初选

Initial Screening:    The first decision to spend resources (time or money) on a project. The project is born at this point. Sometimes called “idea screening.”



In-licensed / 许可

In-licensed:    The acquisition from external sources of novel product concepts or technologies for inclusion in the aggregate NPD portfolio.



Innovation / 创新

Innovation:    A new idea, method, or device. The act of creating a new product or process. The act includes invention as well as the work required to bring an idea or concept into final form.

Innovation Steering Committee / 创新引导委员会

Innovation Steering Committee:    the senior management team or a subset of it responsible for gaining alignment on the strategic and financial goals for new product development, as well as setting expectations for Portfolio and Development Teams.



Innovation strategy / 创新战略

Innovation strategy: provides the goals, direction and framework for innovation across the organization. Individual business units and functions may have their own strategies to achieve specific innovation goals, but it is imperative that these individual strategies are tightly connected with the over-arching organizational innovation strategy.

创新战略:公司开发新产品和技术的定位。一种分类方法是将它们分为勘探者  (在技术、产品、市场开发、商业化领域领先的公司,尽管其中某一 产品不会盈利)、分析者(快速跟随者或模仿者,跟随勘探者,他们的产品模仿勘探者推向市场的新产品)、捍卫者(公司会采用各种可能的手段 ,维护其市场地位,而不仅仅通过开发新产品的途径)和反应者(没有相应的创新战略)。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 2 章)


Innovation-Based Culture / 基于创新的文化

Innovation-Based Culture:    a corporate culture where senior management teams and employees work habitually to reinforce best practices that systematically and continuously churn out valued new products to customers.

Integrated Product Development / 整合产品开发

Integrated Product Development (IPD):    A philosophy that systematically employs an integrated team effort from multiple functional disciplines to develop effectively and efficiently new products that satisfy customer needs.



Intellectual Property / 知识产权

Intellectual Property (IP):    Information, including proprietary knowledge, technical competencies, and design information, which provides commercially exploitable competitive benefit to an organization.



Internal Rate of Return / 内部收益率

Internal Rate of Return (IRR):    The discount rate at which the present value of the future cash flows of an investment equals the cost of the investment. The discount rate with a net present value of 0.

内部收益率:折现率,即未来投资现金流的折现价值等同于投资成本。净折现率为 0.


Intrapreneur / 公司内创业者

Intrapreneur:    The large-firm equivalent of an entrepreneur. Someone who develops new enterprises within the confines of a large corporation.


Introduction Stage / 引入阶段

Introduction Stage:    The first stage of a product’s commercial launch and the product life cycle. This stage is generally seen as the point of market entry, user trial, and product adoption.

引入阶段:产品上市和产品生命周期的第一个阶段。这个阶段通常是市场准入, 用户试用和产品采用的阶段。


ISO-9000 / 国际标准化组织-9000 质量体系标准

ISO-9000:    A set of 5 auditable standards of the International Organization for Standardization that establishes the role of a quality system in a company and which is used to assess whether the company can be certified as compliant to the standards. ISO-9001 deals specifically with new products.

国际标准化组织-9000 质量体系标准 :国际标准组织制定的 5 个审计标准,是考察公司质量体系的准绳,由此可以判断公司是否在质量上达标。ISO—9001 是特别针对新产品进行考察的质量标准体系。


Journal of Product Innovation Management /《新产品创新管理》杂志
Journal of Product Innovation Management:    The premier academic journal in the field of innovation, new product development and management of technology. The Journal, which is owned by the PDMA, is dedicated to the advancement of management practice in all of the functions involved in the total process of product innovation. Its purpose is to bring to managers and students of product innovation the theoretical structures and the practical techniques that will enable them to operate at the cutting edge of effective management practice. Web site:
PDMA 负责,致力于产品研发过程中管理实践的改进。其目标是为管理 者和产品开发者提供理论框架和实践方法,从而进行高效管理。网页 journal


Launch / 发布

Launch: The process by which a new product is introduced into the market for initial sale. (See Chapter 30 of The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

发布:新产品引入市场进行初始销售的过程(参见 PDMA 指导手册第 25、26 章)。


Lead Users / 先导用户

Lead Users:    Users for whom finding a solution to one of their consumer needs is so important that they have modified a current product or invented a new product to solve the need themselves because they have not found a supplier who can solve it for them. When these consumers’ needs are portents of needs that the center of the market will have in the future, their solutions are new product opportunities.



Lean product development / 精益产品开发

Lean product development    (LPD):    the lean    approach to meet the challenges of product development. Lean product development is founded on the fundamental lean methodology initially developed by Toyota (the Toyota Production System TPS).

精益产品开发(LPD):精益的方法来应对产品开发的挑战。 精益产品开发基于丰田(丰田生产系统 TPS)最初开发的基本精益方法。

Learning Organization / 学习型组织

Learning Organization:    An organization that continuously tests and updates the experience of those in the organization, and transforms that experience into improved work processes and knowledge that is accessible to the whole organization and relevant to its core purpose. (see Continuous Learning Activity)

学习型组织:在内部不断测试并更新经验的组织,这些经验用于改进和更新与核心目标相关的工作流程,用于更新知识体系,使其为整个组织所采 用。(参见


Life cycle assessment / 生命周期评估

Life cycle assessment:    A scientific method for analysis of the environmental impacts (CO2    footprint, Water footprint, etc.)



Lightweight Team / 轻量级团队

Lightweight Team:    New product team charged with successfully developing a product concept and delivering to the marketplace. Resources are, for the most part, not dedicated and the team depends on the technical functions for resources necessary to get the work accomplished.


Line Extension / 产品线延伸

Line Extension:    A form of derivative product that adds or modifies features without significantly changing the product functionality.


Manufacturability / 维修活动

Manufacturability:    The extent to which a new product can be easily and effectively manufactured at minimum cost and with maximum reliability.



Manufacturing Design / 制造设计

Manufacturing Design:    The process of determining the manufacturing process that will be used to make a new product. (See Chapter 23
of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

制造设计:确定新产品制造流程的过程。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第 1 版第
23 章)


Manufacturing Test Specification and Procedure / 制造测试规范与流程
Manufacturing Test Specification and Procedure:    Documents prepared by development and manufacturing personnel that describe the performance specifications of a component, subassembly, or system that will be met during the manufacturing process, and that describe the procedure by which the specifications will be assessed.

Market Research / 市场调研

Market Research:    Information about the firm’s customers, competitors, or markets. Information may be from secondary sources (already published and publicly available) or primary sources (from customers themselves). Market research may be qualitative in nature, or quantitative (see entries for these two types of market research).



Market Segmentation / 市场细分

Market Segmentation:    Market segmentation is defined as a framework by which to sub-divide a larger heterogeneous market into smaller, more homogeneous parts. These segments can be defined in many different ways: demographic (men vs. women, young vs. old, or richer vs. poorer), behavioral (those who buy on the phone vs. the internet vs. retail, or those who pay with cash vs. credit cards), or attitudinal (those who believe that store brands are just as good as national brands vs. those who don’t). There are many analytical techniques used to identify segments such as cluster analysis, factor analysis, or discriminate analysis. But the most common method is simply to hypothesize a potential segmentation definition and then to test whether any differences that are observed are statistically significant (See Chapter 13 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

Market Share / 市场份额

Market Share:    A company’s sales in a product area as a percent of the total market sales in that area.



Market Testing / 市场测试

Market Testing: The product development stage when the new product and its marketing plan are tested together. A market test simulates the eventual marketing mix and takes many different forms, only one of which bears the name test market.



Marketing strategy / 营销策略

Marketing strategy: a process or model to allow an organization to focus limited resources on the best opportunities to increase sales and thereby achieve a unique competitive advantage



Maturity Stage / 成熟阶段

Maturity Stage:    The third stage of the product life cycle. This is the stage where sales begin to level off due to market saturation. It is a time when heavy competition, alternative product options, and (possibly) changing buyer or user preferences start to make it difficult to achieve profitability.


Metrics / 度量

Metrics:    A set of measurements to track product development and allow a firm to measure the impact of process improvements over time. These measures generally vary by firm but may include measures characterizing both aspects of the process, such as time to market, and duration of particular process stages, as well as outcomes from product development such as the number of products commercialized per year and percentage of sales due to new products.



Mind mapping / 思维导图

Mind mapping: A graphical technique for imagining connections between various pieces of information or ideas. The participant starts with a key phrase or word in the middle of a page then works out from this point to connect to new ideas in multiple direction – building a web of relationships.

思维导图:一种图形技术,用于想象各种信息或想法之间的联系。 参与者从页面中间的关键短语或词开始,然后从这一点开始连接到多个方向的新想法 – 构建一个关系网络。


Mission / 使命

Mission: The statement of an organization’s creed, philosophy, purpose, business principles, and corporate beliefs.    The purpose of the mission is to focus the energy and resources of the organization
使命:组织的信条,哲学,目的,商业原则和企业信念的声明。 任务的目的是集中力量和资源的组织


Multidimensional scaling / 多维缩放

Multidimensional scaling    (MDS): is a    means    of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset (for example products or markets)



Multifunctional Team / 跨职能团队

Multifunctional Team:    A group of individuals brought together from the different functional areas of a business to work on a problem or process that requires the knowledge, training and capabilities across the areas to successfully complete the work. (See Chapters 9 and 10 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition    and Chapter 6 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1.) (See also “Cross-Functional Team”.)

跨职能团队:来自不同业务职能领域的个体组成的共同致力于一个问题或者流程的团队。这类问题或者流程的顺利解决亟需成功地整合跨领域知识 、培训和能力。(参见 PDMA 手册(第 2 版)的第九、十章和 PDMA 工具书第一册的第六章)(参见“跨职能团队”)


Multivariate analysis / 多元分析

Multivariate analysis:    explores the association between one outcome variable (referred to as the dependent variable) and one or more predictor variables (referred to as independent variables).

Net Present Value / 净现值

Net Present Value    (NPV):    the difference between the    present value    of cash inflows and the    present value    of cash outflows.    NPV    is used in capital budgeting to analyze the profitability of a projected investment or project.

净现值(NPV): 按照公司贴现率或者资金成本,将当前和预期资金的流入与流出折算成现值,以评价不同项目的可比投资。


Network Diagram / 网络图

Network Diagram:    A graphical diagram with boxes connected by lines that shows the sequence of development activities and the interrelationship of each task with another. Often used in conjunction with a Gantt Chart.



New Product / 新产品

New Product:    A term of many opinions and practices, but most generally defined as a product (either a good or service) new to the firm marketing it. Excludes products that are only changed in promotion.


New Product Development / 新产品开发

New Product Development (NPD):    The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product. Also frequently referred to just as “product development.”
新产品开发(NPD) : 包括新产品的战略、组织、构思、产品制造和营销策划与评估以及新产品商业化在内的全部过程。通常简称为“产品开发”。


New Product Development Process / 新产品开发流程

New Product Development Process (NPD Process):    A disciplined and defined set of tasks and steps that describe the normal means by which a company repetitively converts embryonic ideas into salable products or services. (See Chapters 4 and 5 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

新产品开发流程(NPD 流程):将最初想法不断转化为销售产品和服务,公司所开展的条理化工作流程。(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 4、5 章)


New Product Development Professional / 新产品开发专业人员

New Product Development Professional (NPDP):    A New Product Development Professional is certified by the PDMA as having mastered the body of knowledge in new product development, as proven by performance on the Certification test. To qualify for the NPDP certification examination, a candidate must hold a bachelor’s or higher university degree (or an equivalent degree) from an accredited institution and have spent a minimum of two years working in the new product development field.

新产品开发专业人员(NPDP): PDMA 所评定的新产品开发专业人员,应掌握新产品开发的整个知识体系并且需通过认证考试。为保证 NPDP 认证考试的权威性, 报考者必须拥有 公认机构颁发的学士学位或者更高学历(或同等学历),并且具有至少两年的新产品开发从业经验。


New Product Introduction / 新产品引入

New Product Introduction (NPI):    The launch or commercialization of a new product into the marketplace. Takes place at the end of a successful product development project. (See Chapter 30 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
新产品引入(NPI): 一项新产品进入市场的启动阶段,在新产品项目成功开发的后期。


New-to-the-World Product / 全新产品

New-to-the-World Product:    A good or service that has never before been available to either consumers or producers. The automobile was new-to-the-world when it was introduced, as were microwave ovens and pet rocks.

全新产品: 顾客或者生产商从未了解的产品或服务。例如,汽车、微波炉和宠物石在引入时都是全新产品。


Non-Product Advantage / 非产品优势

Non-Product Advantage:    Elements of the marketing mix that create competitive advantage other than the product itself. These elements can include marketing communications, distribution, company reputation, technical support, and associated services.



Norming / 规范

Norming:    the third stage of team formation where the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues’ strengths, and respect the leader’s authority.

规范:团队形成的第三阶段,团队进入规范阶段。 这是当人们开始解决他们的分歧,欣赏同事的优势,并尊重领导的权威。
Open innovation / 开放式创新

Open innovation: defined    as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal    innovation, and expand the markets for external use of    innovation, respectively



Operations /  运营

Operations:    A term that includes manufacturing but is much broader, usually including procurement, physical distribution, and, for services, management of the offices or other areas where the services are provided.



Opportunity / 机遇

Opportunity:    A business or technology gap that a company or individual realizes, by design or accident, that exists between the current situation and an envisioned future in order to capture competitive advantage, respond to a threat, solve a problem or ameliorate a difficulty.

机遇: 公司或个人认识到的存在于现在和可展望未来之间的商业或技术差距。目的在于捕捉竞争优势、应对危机或者解决难题。


Organizational identity / 组织身份

Organizational identity: Fundamental to the long-term success of an organization is a clear definition and understanding of what the organization stands for, why does it exist.


Outsourcing / 外包

Outsourcing:    The process of procuring a good or service from someone else, rather than the firm producing it themselves.

外包: 公司从外部采购产品或者服务的过程,而不是自己生产所需产品。


Outstanding Corporate Innovator Award / 杰出公司创新者奖

Outstanding Corporate Innovator Award:    An annual PDMA award given to firms acknowledged through a formal vetting process as being outstanding innovators. The basic requirements for receiving this award, which is given yearly by the PDMA, are: 1. Sustained success in launching new products over a five-year time frame; 2. Significant company growth from new product success; 3. A defined new product development process, that can be described to others; 4. Distinctive innovative characteristics and intangibles.

杰出公司创新者奖:PDMA 一年一度通过专业认证颁发给杰出创新公司的奖项。要荣获 PDMA 这个年度奖项,需要符合以下基本要求:1. 在开发新产品方面持续
5 年拥有新成果;2. 新产品的成功给公司带来显著的效益增长;3. 能明确定义新产品开发的流程;4. 独特的创新特征及无形资产。


Payback / 回报

Payback:    The time, usually in years, from some point in the development process until the commercialized product or service has recovered its costs of development and marketing. While some firms take the point of full-scale market introduction of a new product as the starting point, others begin the clock at the start of development expense.


Perceptual Mapping / 感知映射

Perceptual Mapping:    A quantitative market research tool used to understand how customers think of current and future products.
Perceptual maps are visual representations of the positions that sets of products hold in consumers’ minds.



Performance Measurement System / 绩效评估系统

Performance Measurement System:    The system that enables the firm to monitor the relevant performance indicators of new products in the appropriate time frame.



Performance metrics / 绩效指标

Performance metrics: a set of measurements to track product development and to allow an organization to measure the impact of process improvement over time. These measures generally vary by organization but may include measures characterizing both aspects of process, such as time to market and duration of particular process stages, as well as outcomes from product development such as the number of products commercialized per year and percentage sales due to new products.

绩效指标:用于跟踪产品开发的一组测量,并允许组织测量过程改进随时间的影响。 这些措施通常因组织而异,但可能包括表征过程的两个方面的措施,例


PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) / 项目评审技术
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique):    An event-oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty in estimates of duration times for individual activities.




PESTLE:    A structured tool based on the analysis
of    Political,    Economic,    Social,    Technological,    Legal
and    Environmental factors. It is particularly useful as a strategic framework for seeking a better understanding of trends in factors that will directly influence the future of an organization – such as demographics, political barriers, disruptive technologies, competitive pressures, etc.

PESTLE:基于政治,经济,社会,技术,法律和环境因素的一种结构化分析工具。 它是极为有效的战略框架,是对趋势的更精准解读,是分析直接影响组织未来,如人口统计,政治因素,颠覆性技术,竞争压力等因素的关键。


Phase Review Process / 阶段审核流程

Phase Review Process:    A staged product development process in which first one function completes a set of tasks, then passes the information they generated sequentially to another function which in turn completes the next set of tasks and then passes everything along to the next function. Multifunctional teamwork is largely absent in
these types of product development processes, which may also be called baton-passing processes. Most firms have moved from these processes to Stage-Gate    processes using multifunctional teams.

阶段审核流程:阶梯式的产品开发流程,在此过程中,一职能团队完成一组任 务,所生成的信息传递给另一职能团队,然后此团队完成系列任务并 将信息传递给另外一组职能团队。此类型的产品开发流程并不适合跨职能团队合作,所以大多数公司正从此流程转向跨职能团队阶段–关口流程。


Pipeline / 产品管道

Pipeline (product pipeline):    The scheduled stream of products in development for release to the market.



Pipeline Management / 管道管理

Pipeline Management:    A process that integrates product strategy, project management, and functional management to continually optimize the cross-project management of all development-related activities. (See Chapter 5 in    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition    and Chapter 3
in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

管道管理:将产品战略、项目管理和职能管理整合起来,以持续优化所有相关开发活动中的跨项目管理。(参见 PDMA 手册第一版第 5 章和 PDMA 第二版第 3 章)


Platform Product / 平台型产品

Platform Product:    The design and components that are shared by a set of products in a product family. From this platform, numerous derivative products can be designed. (See also product platform)

Platform projects / 平台项目

Platform projects: produce a set of subsystems and interfaces that form a common structure, from which a stream of derivative products can be efficiently developed and produced.



Portfolio / 组合

Portfolio:    Commonly referred to as a set of projects or products that a company is investing in and making strategic trade-offs against. (See also project portfolio and product portfolio)



Portfolio Criteria / 组合关键指标

Portfolio Criteria:    The set of criteria against which the business judges both proposed and currently active product development projects to create a balanced and diverse mix of ongoing efforts.



Portfolio Management / 组合管理

Portfolio Management:    A business process by which a business unit decides on the mix of active projects, staffing and dollar budget allocated to each project currently being undertaken. See also pipeline management. (See Chapter 13 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1    and Chapter 3 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
组合管理:对项目活动、人员以及分配到各项目的预算进行业务管理的过程。参见渠道管理。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册第 13 章和 PDMA 手册第二版第 3 章)


Portfolio Rollout Scenarios / 组合产品首次公开展示

Portfolio Rollout Scenarios:    hypothetical illustrations of the number and magnitude of new products that would need to be launched over a certain time frame to reach the desired financial goals; accounts for success/failure rates and considers company and competitive benchmarks.



Primary market research /  首要市场研究

Primary market research: is defined as original research conducted by you (or someone you hire) to collect data specifically for your current objective



Process Champion / 流程负责人

Process Champion:    The person responsible for the daily promotion of and encouragement to use a formal business process throughout the organization. They are also responsible for the ongoing training, innovation input and continuous improvement of the process.

Process Managers / 流程经理

Process Managers:    The operational managers responsible for ensuring the orderly and timely flow of ideas and projects through the process.



Process Owner / 流程拥有者

Process Owner:    The executive manager responsible for the strategic results of the NPD process. This includes process throughput, quality of output, and participation within the organization. (See Section 3 of    The PDMA ToolBook    for 4 tools that process owners might find useful, and see Chapter 5 of    The PDMA HandBook.)



Product / 产品

Product:    Term used to describe all goods, services, and knowledge sold. Products are bundles of attributes (features, functions, benefits, and uses) and can be either tangible, as in the case of physical goods, or intangible, as in the case of those associated with service benefits, or can be a combination of the two.

Product and Process Performance Success / 产品和流程绩效成功
Product and Process Performance Success:    The extent to which a new product meets its technical performance and product development process performance criteria.



Product Architecture / 产品架构

Product Architecture:    The way in which the functional elements are assigned to the physical chunks of a product and the way in which those physical chunks interact to perform the overall function of the product. (See Chapter 16 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)



Product backlog / 产品积压

Product backlog:    A basis of agile product development. The requirements for a system, expressed as a prioritized list of product backlog items. These include both functional and non-functional customer requirements, as well as technical team-generated requirements

产品积压:敏捷产品开发的基础。 对系统的要求,表示为产品积压项目的优先级列表。 这些包括功能和非功能客户要求,以及技术团队生成的要求


Product Definition / 产品定义

Product Definition:    Defines the product, including the target market, product concept, benefits to be delivered, positioning
strategy, price point, and even product requirements and design specifications.



Product Development & Management Association (PDMA) / 产品开发与管理协会
Product Development & Management Association (PDMA):    A not-for- profit professional organization whose purpose is to seek out, develop, organize and disseminate leading edge information on the theory and practice of product development and product development processes. The PDMA uses local, national, and international meetings and conferences, educational workshops, a quarterly magazine (Visions), a bi-monthly scholarly journal (Journal of Product Innovation Management), research proposal and dissertation proposal competitions,    The PDMA HandBook of New Product Development 1st and 2nd Editions, and    The PDMA ToolBook 1 for New Product
Development        to achieve its purposes. The association also manages the certification process for New Product Development Professionals. Web site:

产品开发与管理协会(PDMA):探求、发展、组织和传播产品开发领域前沿理论与实践知识的非盈利性专业组织。在实现其目标的过程中,PD MA 召开地方性、国家级和国际性会议,建立教育体系,创办季刊杂志(《展望》)和双月刊学术期刊(《产品创新管理》),审查提议和论文, 完成《PDMA 新产品开发手册》
(第一版)和《新产品开发工具书》(第一版)。PDMA 还从事新产品开发专业人士的认证工作。网址


Product Development / 产品开发

Product Development:    The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product. (See Chapters 19
– 22 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

Product Development Process / 产品开发流程

Product Development Process:    A disciplined and defined set of tasks, steps, and phases that describe the normal means by which a company repetitively converts embryonic ideas into salable products or services. (See Chapters 4 and 5 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

产品开发流程:一整套明确的任务、步骤和阶段,表明了公司不断将初始概念转化成可销售产品或者服务的正式途径。(参见 PDMA 手册第 6 章和第 7 章)


Product development Team / 产品开发团队

Product development Team:    That group of persons who participate in the product development project. Frequently each team member represents a function, department, or specialty. Together they represent the full set of capabilities needed to complete the project. (See Chapter 9 in        The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition    and Chapter 6 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1.)



Product Discontinuation / 产品废止

Product Discontinuation:    A product or service that is withdrawn or removed from the market because it no longer provides an economic, strategic, or competitive advantage in the firm’s portfolio of offerings. (See Chapter 28 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

产品废止:一种产品或服务从市场上撤回或退出,因为它在公司产品中不再具有经济、战略或竞争性优势。(参见 PDMA 手册第一版的第 28 章)
Product Failure / 产品失败

Product Failure:    A product development project that does not meet the objective of its charter or marketplace.



Product Family / 产品系列

Product Family: The set of products that have been derived from a common product platform. Members of a product family normally have many common parts and assemblies.



Product Innovation Charter (PIC) / 产品创新章程

Product Innovation Charter (PIC):    A critical strategic document, the Product Innovation Charter (PIC) is the heart of any organized effort to commercialize a new product. It contains the reasons the project has been started, the goals, objectives, guidelines, and boundaries of the project. It is the “who, what, where, when, and why” of the product development project. In the Discovery phase, the charter may contain assumptions about market preferences, customer needs, and sales and profit potential. As the project enters the Development phase, these assumptions are challenged through prototype development and in-market testing. While business needs and market conditions can and will change as the project progresses, one must resist the strong tendency for projects to wander off as the development work takes place. The PIC must be constantly referenced during the Development phase to make sure it is still valid, that the project is still within the defined arena, and that the opportunity envisioned in the Discovery phase still exists.

产品创新章程(PIC):指导新产品开发工作的职能部门或者项目团队的策略综 述。PIC 详述了项目运行的领域、目标和通常采用的方法。它适用于 单个项目或者项目的整个规划。参见文档最后的备注里修改和扩充的定义。

Product Life Cycle / 产品生命周期

Product Life Cycle:    The four stages that a new product is thought to go through from birth to death: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Controversy surrounds whether products go through this cycle in any predictable way.



Product Life-Cycle Management / 产品生命周期管理

Product Life-Cycle Management:    Changing the features and benefits of the product, elements of the marketing mix, and manufacturing operations over time to maximize the profits obtainable from the product over its lifecycle. (See Chapter 33 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

产品生命周期管理:随着时间推移改变产品特性和功能、市场混合要素和制造过程,以在产品生命周期中获取利润最大化。(参见 PDMA 手册第二 版的第 33 章)


Product Management / 产品管理

Product Management:    Ensuring over time that a product or service profitably meets the needs of customers by continually monitoring and modifying the elements of the marketing mix, including: the product and its features, the communications strategy, distribution channels and price.

Product Manager / 产品经理

Product Manager:    The person assigned responsibility for overseeing all of the various activities that concern a particular product.
Sometimes called a brand manager in consumer packaged goods firms.  产品经理:总体监督产品开发活动的人,在消费品包装产品公司称为品牌经理。

Product Platforms / 产品平台

Product Platforms:    Underlying structures or basic architectures that are common across a group of products or that will be the basis of a series of products commercialized over a number of years.



Product Portfolio / 产品组合

Product Portfolio:    The set of products and product lines the firm has placed in the market. (See Chapter 13 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

产品组合:一系列已上市的公司产品和产品线。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第13 章)


Product Positioning / 产品定位

Product Positioning:    how a product will be marketed to customers. The product positioning refers to the set of features and value that is valued by (and therefore defined by) the target customer audience, relative to competing products.

Product Rejuvenation / 产品复兴

Product Rejuvenation:    The process by which a mature or declining product is altered, updated, repackaged or redesigned to lengthen the product life cycle and in turn extend sales demand.



Product Requirements Document / 产品需求文件

Product Requirements Document:    The contract between, at a minimum, marketing and development, describing completely and unambiguously the necessary attributes (functional performance requirements) of the product to be developed, as well as information about how achievement of the attributes will be verified (i.e. through testing).



Product Superiority / 产品优越性

Product Superiority:    Differentiation of a firm’s products from those of competitors, achieved by providing consumers with greater benefits and value. This is one of the critical success factors in commercializing new products.



Program Manager / 项目经理

Program Manager:    The organizational leader charged with responsibility of executing a portfolio of NPD projects. (See Section 4 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1    for 4 product development tools a program manager may find helpful.)

Project Decision Making & Reviews / 项目决策与审核

Project Decision Making & Reviews:    A series of Go/No-Go decisions about the viability of a project that ensure the completion of the project provides a product that meets the marketing and financial objectives of the company. This includes a systematic review of the viability of a project as it moves through the various phase stage gates in the development process. These periodic checks validate that the project is still close enough to the original plan to deliver against the business case (See Chapters 21 and 22 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

项目决策与审核:审核项目的可行性及产品满足公司市场目标和财务目标的能 力,依次做出一系列通过/不通过决策。包括在开发流程中各阶段关口进行的针对项目可行性的系统审查。这些阶段性的审查确保项目与原始计划保持一致。
(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 21 和第 22 章)


Project Leader / 项目负责人

Project Leader:    The person responsible for managing an individual new product development project through to completion. He or she is responsible for ensuring that milestones and deliverables are achieved and that resources are utilized effectively. See also Team Leader. (See Sections 1 and 2 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1    for 8 product development tools for project leaders)

项目负责人:管理单个新产品开发项目一切工作的人。他/她能有效利用资源、负责实现突破与成果交付。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 1、2 节 关于项目负责人的产品开发工具)


Project Management / 项目管理

Project Management:    The set of people, tools, techniques, and processes used to define the project’s goal, plan all the work necessary to reach that goal, lead the project and support teams,
monitor progress, and ensure that the project is completed in a satisfactory way.



Project Pipeline Management / 项目渠道管理

Project Pipeline Management:    Fine-tuning resource deployment smoothly for projects during ramp-up, ramp-down, and mid-course adjustments.



Project Plan / 项目计划

Project Plan:    A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and control. Documents planning assumptions and decisions, facilitates communication among stakeholders, and documents approved scope, cost, and schedule deadlines.



Project Portfolio / 项目组合

Project Portfolio:    The set of projects in development at any point in time. These will vary in the extent of newness or innovativeness. (See Chapter 13 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1    and Chapter 3 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

Project Resource Estimation / 项目资源预估

Project Resource Estimation:    This activity provides one of the major contributions to the project cost calculation. Turning functional requirements into a realistic cost estimate is a key factor in the success of a product delivering against the business plan.



Project Sponsor / 项目发起人

Project Sponsor:    The authorization and funding source of the project. The person who defines the project goals and to whom the final results are presented. Typically, a senior manager.



Project Strategy / 项目战略

Project Strategy:    The goals and objectives for an individual product development project. It includes how that project fits into the firm’s product portfolio, who the target market is, and what problems the product will solve for those customers. (See Chapter 2 in The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

项目战略:产品开发项目的目标。包括项目是如何融入公司的产品组合、它的目标市场,以及如何满足客户需求。(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 2 章)


Project Team / 项目团队

Project Team:    A multifunctional group of individuals chartered to plan and execute a new product development project.


Prospectors / 朝阳公司

Prospectors:    Firms that lead in technology, product and market development and commercialization, even though an individual product may not lead to profits. Their general goal is to be first to market with any particular innovation.



Prototype / 产品原型

Prototype:    A physical model of the new product concept. Depending upon the purpose, prototypes may be non-working, functionally working, or both functionally and aesthetically complete.



Psychographics / 消费心理学

Psychographics: Characteristics of consumers that, rather than being purely demographic, measure their attitudes, interests, opinions, and lifestyles.



Qualitative Marketing Research / 定性市场调研

Qualitative Marketing Research:    Research conducted with a very small number of respondents, either in groups or individually, to gain an impression of their beliefs, motivations, perceptions and opinions.
Frequently used to gather initial consumer needs and obtain initial
reactions to ideas and concepts. Results are not representative of the market in general or projectable. Qualitative marketing research is used to show why people buy a particular product, whereas quantitative marketing research reveals how many people buy it. (See Chapters 14-16 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

定性市场调研:对于部分人群进行个体或集体调研,了解他们的想法、意向、动机和观点。收集用户的需求信息并获得其对于创意和概念的第一反 应。这些结果不代表市场整体现状。定性市场调研用来表明消费者购买产品的原因,而定量市场调研揭示购买产品的用户数量。(参见 PDMA 手册 的第 11 章)


Quality / 质量

Quality:    The collection of attributes, which when present in a product, means a product has conformed to or exceeded customer expectations.



Quality Assurance / 质量保证

Quality Assurance/Compliance: Function responsible for monitoring and evaluating development policies and practices, to ensure they meet company and applicable regulatory standards.



Quality Control Specification and Procedure / 质量控制规范与程序
Quality Control Specification and Procedure:    Documents that describe the specifications and the procedures by which they will be measured which a finished subassembly or system must meet before judged ready for shipment.


Quality Function Deployment (QFD) / 质量功能开发

Quality Function Deployment (QFD):    A structured method employing matrix analysis for linking what the market requires to how it will be accomplished in the development effort. This method is most frequently used during the stage of development when a multifunctional team agrees on how customer needs relate to product specifications and the features that deliver those needs. By explicitly linking these aspects of product design, QFD minimizes the possibility of omitting important design characteristics or interactions across design characteristics. QFD is also an important mechanism in promoting multifunctional teamwork. Developed and introduced by Japanese auto manufacturers, QFD is widely used in the automotive industry.

质量功能开发(QFD):市场需要与开发工作相结合,运用矩阵分析论的结构化方法。当一个跨职能团队认同客户的需求与产品细节和特性紧密 联系时,这种方法便能得到应用。明确地将产品设计的各方面联系起来,避免其在特性设计过程中删除重要设计特性或者隔断特性间的联系,有利 于促进多方合作。由于日本汽车制造商的开发和引进,QFD 在汽车制造业得到广泛应用。


Quality-by-Design / 质量策划

Quality-by-Design:    The process used to design quality into the product, service, or process from the inception of product development.



Quantitative Market Research / 定量市场调研

Quantitative Market Research:    Consumer research, often surveys, conducted with a large enough sample of consumers to produce statistically reliable results that can be used to project outcomes
to the general consumer population. Used to determine importance levels of different customer needs, performance ratings of and satisfaction with current products, probability of trial, repurchase rate, and product preferences. These techniques are used to reduce the uncertainty associated with many other aspects of product development. (See Chapter 18 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

定量市场调研:一种用户调研方法,最常使用的形式是问卷调查,通过对大量用户的调查得出可信数据结果,以分析项目对于用户的数量影响。定 量市场调研用来判定一些重要的水平等级,包括不同用户的需求、现有产品性能等级和满意程度、试验的可能性、二次购买率和对产品的喜好程度 等。这项技术可以减少产品开发流程中的诸多不确定因素。(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 18 章)


Radical Innovation / 突破型创新

Radical Innovation:    A new product, generally containing new technologies, that significantly changes behaviors and consumption patterns in the marketplace.


Random Sample / 随机样本

Random Sample: a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen



Reactors / 回应者

Reactors:    Firms that have no coherent innovation strategy. They only develop new products when absolutely forced to by the competitive situation.

Reposition / 重新定位

Reposition:    To change the position of the product in the minds of customers, either on failure of the original positioning or to react to changes in the marketplace. Most frequently accomplished through changing the marketing mix rather than redeveloping the product.



Resource Matrix / 资源矩阵

Resource Matrix:    An array that shows the percentage of each non- managerial person’s time that is to be devoted to each of the current projects in the firm’s portfolio.



Resource Plan / 资源规划

Resource Plan:    Detailed summary of all forms of resources required to complete a product development project, including personnel, equipment, time, and finances.



Return on Investment (ROI) / 投资回报率

Return on Investment (ROI):    A standard measure of project profitability, this is the discounted profits over the life of the project expressed as a percentage of initial investment.


Risk / 风险

Risk:    An event or condition that may or may not occur, but if it does occur will impact the ability to achieve a project’s objectives. In new product development, risks may take the form of market, technical, or organizational issues. For more on managing product development risks, see Chapters 8 and 15 in the    PDMA ToolBook 1    and Chapter 28 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.

风险:未知事件或情况可能影响到项目的进行。在新产品开发流程中,风险可能会表现为市场、技术或者组织上的问题。(要了解更多关于处理产 品开发风险的知识,参见 PDMA 工具书的第 8 章和第 15 章)


Risk Acceptance / 风险认可

Risk Acceptance:    An uncertain event or condition for which the project team has decided not to change the project plan. A team may be forced to accept an identified risk when they are unable to identify any other suitable response to the risk.


Risk Avoidance / 风险避免

Risk Avoidance:    Changing the project plan to eliminate a risk or to protect the project objectives from any potential impact due to the risk.



Risk Management / 风险管理

Risk Management:    The process of identifying, measuring, and mitigating the business risk in a product development project.


Risk Mitigation / 风险减控

Risk Mitigation:    Actions taken to reduce the probability and/or impact of a risk to below some threshold of acceptability.



Risk Tolerance / 风险容限

Risk Tolerance:    The level of risk that a project stakeholder is willing to accept. Tolerance levels are context specific. That is, stakeholders may be willing to accept different levels of risk for different types of risk, such as risks of project delay, price realization, and technical potential.



Risk Transference / 风险转移

Risk Transference:    Actions taken to shift the impact of a risk and the ownership of the risk response actions to a third party.



Roadmapping / 路线图制定

Roadmapping: A graphical multi-step process to forecast future market and/or technology changes, and then plan the products to address these changes.


roduct owner / 产品所有者

Product owner: Commonly used in agile product development. The product owner is the single person who must have final authority representing the customer’s interests in backlog prioritization and requirements questions.

产品所有者:常用于敏捷产品开发。 产品所有者是必须具有表示客户在积压优先级和需求问题中的兴趣的最终权限的单个人。

Routine innovation / 日常创新

Routine innovation: Builds on an organization’s existing technological competencies and fits with its existing business models. Innovation is focused on feature improvement and new versions or models.

日常创新:建立在组织现有的技术能力之上,符合其现有的商业模式。 创新专注于功能改进和新版本或模型。


Sales forecasting / 销售预测

Sales forecasting: predicting the sales potential for a new product using techniques such as the A-T-A-R (Awareness-Trial-Availability-
Repeat) model

销售预测:使用诸如 A-T-A-R(意识 – 试用 – 可用性 – 重复)模型之类的技术来预测新产品的销售潜力


Sales wave research / 销售波研究法

Sales wave research: customers who are initially offered the product at no cost are re-offered it, or a competitor’s product, at slightly
reduced prices. The offer may be made as many as 5 times. The number of customers continuing to select the product and their level of satisfaction is recorded

销售波段研究(销售波研究法):最初免费提供产品的客户以略低的价格重新提供产品或竞争对手的产品。 报价可以多达 5 次。 记录继续选择产品的顾客数量及其满意度


Scamper / Scamper 策略

Scamper:    an ideation too that utilizes actions verbs as stimuli. S
– Substitute;    C – Combine; A – Adapt; M – Modify; P – Put to another use; E – Eliminate; R – Reverse

Scamper 策略:一种创意工具,一系列激发创意的行为。S – 替代; C – 合并; A – 改造; M – 调整; P – 改变用途; E – 去除; R – 逆向操作


Scenario Analysis / 场景分析

Scenario Analysis:    A tool for envisioning alternate futures so that a strategy can be formulated to respond to future opportunities and challenges. (See Chapter 16 of the PDMA ToolBook 1.)

场景分析:预想未来场景以实施策略来应对未来机会和挑战的工具。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 16 章)


Screening / 筛选

Screening:    The process of evaluating and selecting new ideas or concepts to put into the project portfolio. Most firms now use a formal screening process with evaluation criteria that span customer, strategy, market, profitability and feasibility dimensions.



Scrum:    A term used in agile product development. Arguably it is the most popular framework for implementing agile. With scrum, the product is built in a series of fixed-length iterations giving teams a framework for shipping software on a regular cadence

Scrum:用于敏捷产品开发的术语。 可以说,它是实现敏捷的最流行的框架。使用 scrum,该产品是建立在一系列固定长度的迭代,给团队一个框架,以定期节奏的航运软件


Scrum Team / Scrum 团队

Scrum Team: Commonly used in agile product development. Usually made up of seven, plus or minus two, members. The team usually comprises a mix of functions or disciplines required to successfully complete the sprint goals (cross-functional team).

Scrum 团队:常用于敏捷产品开发。 通常由七个,加或减两个成员组成。 团队通常包括成功完成冲刺目标(跨职能团队)所需的功能或学科的组合。



Scrum-master:    Commonly used in agile product development. The facilitator for the team and product owner. Rather than manage the team, the ScrumMaster works to assist both the team and the product owner

Scrum-master:常用于敏捷产品开发。 团队和产品负责人的协调人。 Scrum
Master 不是管理团队,而是协助团队和产品所有者
S-Curve / S 曲线

S-Curve (Technology S-Curve):    Technology performance improvements tend to progress over time in the form of an “S” curve. When first invented, technology performance improves slowly and incrementally. Then, as experience with a new technology accrues, the rate of performance increase grows and technology performance increases by leaps and bounds. Finally, some of the performance limits of a new technology start to be reached and performance growth slows. At some point, the limits of the technology may be reached and further improvements are not made. Frequently, the technology then becomes vulnerable to a substitute technology that is capable of making additional performance improvements. The substitute technology is usually on the lower, slower portion of its own “S” curve and quickly overtakes the original technology when performance accelerates during the middle (vertical) portion of the “S”.

S 曲线(技术—S 曲线):技术绩效改进随着时间而呈现“S”形曲线。在新产品开发初期,技术绩效改进曲线会缓慢逐步上升。随着开发新技术的经验不断积
累,绩效增加和技术绩效呈跨越式增长。最后,新产品技术接近绩效极限后, 技术绩效的增长速度放缓。在某一节点,技术开发达到极限点,而进一步改进尚未完成。此时,原技术往往被另一种能实现更多绩效改进的技术所替代。这种替代技术处于自身 S 曲线的下端,并在其快速成长期到达 S 曲线的中间垂直) 部分时,迅速取代原有技术。


Secondary market research / 二级市场研究

Secondary market research: is defined as research that involves searching for existing data that was originally collected by someone else.


Segmentation / 市场细分

Segmentation:    The process of dividing a large and heterogeneous market into more homogeneous subgroups. Each subgroup, or segment, holds similar views about the product, and values, purchases, and uses the product in similar ways. (See Chapters 3 and 4 of The PDMA HandBook)
PDMA 手册的第 3 章和第 4 章)


Senior Management / 高级管理层

Senior Management:    That level of executive or operational management above the product development team that has approval authority or controls resources important to the development effort.



Sensitivity Analysis / 敏感性分析

Sensitivity Analysis:    A calculation of the impact that an uncertainty might have on the new product business case. It is conducted by setting upper and lower ranges on the assumptions involved and calculating the expected outcomes. (See Chapter 16 of The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

敏感性分析:对某一不确定因素对新产品业务产生影响的估计。通过设置相关假设的上限和下限进行管理,并计算期望结果。(参见 PDMA 工具书 第一册的第
16 章)


Services / 服务

Services:    Products, such as an airline flight or insurance policy, which are intangible or at least substantially so. If totally intangible, they are exchanged directly from producer to user, cannot be transported or stored and are instantly perishable. Service delivery usually involves customer participation in some important way. Services cannot be sold in the sense of ownership transfer, and they have no title of ownership.


Simulated Test Market / 模拟营销测试

Simulated Test Market:    A form of quantitative market research and pre-test marketing in which consumers are exposed to new products and to their claims in a staged advertising and purchase situation.
Output of the test is an early forecast of expected sales or market share, based on mathematical forecasting models, management assumptions, and input of specific measurements from the simulation.



Six Sigma / 六西格玛

Six Sigma:    A level of process performance that produces only 3.4 defects for every one million operations.

六西格玛:每一百万个操作只产生 3.4 次错误的流程运营水平。


Six thinking hats / 六顶思考帽

Six thinking hats: A tool developed by Edward de Bono which encourages team members to separate thinking into six clear functions and roles. Each role is identified with a color-symbolic “thinking hat.”

六顶思考帽:爱德华·德·波诺开发的一个工具,它鼓励团队成员将思维分成六个明确的职能和角色。 每个角色都用一个颜色象征的“思维帽”来标识。
Social media / 社交媒体

Social media: computer-mediated tools that allow people, companies and other organizations to create, share, or exchange information, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual communities and networks.



Specification / 规格

Specification:    A detailed description of the features and performance characteristics of a product. For example, a laptop computer’s specification may read as a 90 megahertz Pentium, with 16 megabytes of RAM and 720 megabytes of hard disk space, 3.5 hours of battery life, weight of 4.5 pounds, with an active matrix 256 color screen.

90 兆赫的奔腾处理器、16 兆的 RAM 存储和 720 兆的硬盘空间,电池可 持续使用 3.5 小时,重量 4.5 磅,显示器配有 256 种色彩。


Speed to Market / 上市速度

Speed to Market:    The length of time it takes to develop a new product from an early initial idea for a new product to initial market sales. Precise definitions of the start and end point vary from one company to another, and may vary from one project to another within a company. (See Chapter 24 of The PDMA HandBook)

Sponsor / 发起人

Sponsor:    An informal role in a product development project, usually performed by a higher-ranking person in the firm who is not directly involved in the project, but who is ready to extend a helping hand if needed, or provide a barrier to interference by others.



Sprint / 冲刺

Sprint:    A term used in agile product development. A set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review

冲刺:用于敏捷产品开发的术语。 特定工作必须完成并准备审查的一段时间


Stage / 阶段

Stage:    One group of concurrently accomplished tasks, with specified outcomes and deliverables, of the overall product development process.


Staged Product Development Activity / 阶段产品开发活动

Staged Product Development Activity: The set of product development tasks commencing when it is believed there are no major unknowns and that result in initial production of salable product, carried out in stages.

Stage-Gate Process / 阶段-关口流程

Stage-Gate Process:    A widely employed product development process that divides the effort into distinct time-sequenced stages separated by management decision gates. Multifunctional teams must successfully complete a prescribed set of related cross-functional tasks in each stage prior to obtaining management approval to proceed to the next stage of product development. The framework of the Stage-Gate™ process includes work-flow and decision-flow paths and defines the supporting systems and practices necessary to ensure the process’s ongoing smooth operation.

阶段—关口流程:一种广泛使用的产品开发流程,依照管理决策关口划分不同阶段。在获得许可进入下一产品开发阶段之前,跨职能开发团队必须 成功完成当前阶段的相关任务。阶段关口流程的框架包括工作流程和决策流程途径,为确保流程顺利制定支撑体系并进行实践。


Standard Cost / 标准成本

Standard Cost:    See Factory Cost. 标准成本:见制造成本。

Star products / 明星产品

Star products: products that command a significant market share in a growing overall market.



Storming / 风暴

Storming:    the second stage in team formation where people start to push against the boundaries established. This is where many teams fail. Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members’ natural working styles.
风暴:团队形成的第二阶段,人们开始推动建立的边界。 这是许多团队失败的地方。 风暴经常发生在团队成员的自然工作风格之间的冲突。


Storyboarding / 故事板

Storyboarding:    Focuses on the development of a story, possibly about a consumer’s use of a product, to better understand the problems or issue that might lead to specific product design attributes



Strategic Balance / 战略平衡

Strategic Balance:    Balancing the portfolio of development projects along one or more of many dimensions such as focus versus diversification, short versus long term, high versus low risk, extending platforms versus development of new platforms.



Strategic fit / 战略适合

Strategic fit: Ensure projects are consistent with the articulated strategy.    For example, if certain technologies or markets are specified as areas of strategic focus do the projects fit into these areas?

Strategic Partnering / 战略伙伴

Strategic Partnering:    An alliance or partnership between two firms (frequently one large corporation and one smaller, entrepreneurial firm) to create a specialized new product. Typically, the large firm supplies capital, and the necessary product development, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution capabilities, while the small firm supplies specialized technical or creative expertise.

战略伙伴:两个公司共同开发某种新产品而实现的联盟或合作。在通常情况下, 大公司提供资金和产品开发、营销、制造、分销能力,而小公司则提供特殊技术或创新性技术。


Strategic priorities / 战略优先

Strategic priorities: For example, if the organization is seeking technology leadership then the balance of projects in the portfolio should reflect this focus.



Strategy / 战略

Strategy:    The organization’s vision, mission, and values. One subset of the firm’s overall strategy is its Innovation Strategy.


Stratified sampling / 分层抽样

Stratified sampling: the population is divided into strata according to some variables that are thought to be related to the variables that we are interested in. A sample is taken from    each    stratum.


Stratified sampling / 分层抽样

Stratified sampling: the population is divided into strata according to some variables that are thought to be related to the variables that we are interested in. A sample is taken from    each    stratum.



Support projects / 支持项目

Support projects: can be incremental improvements in existing products or improvements in manufacturing efficiency of an existing product. Generally, they are low risk.

支持项目:可以对现有产品进行渐进式改进或提高现有产品的制造效率。 一般来说,他们是低风险。


Sustainable development / 可持续发展

Sustainable development:    development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs



Sustainable innovation / 可持续创新

Sustainable innovation:    The process in which new products or services are developed and brought to commercialization and, in which the characteristics of sustainable development are respected from the economical, environmental and social angle, in the sourcing, production, use and end-of-service stage of the product life cycle.
可持续创新:新产品或服务的开发和带来商业化的过程,其中可持续发展的特点从经济,环境和社会角度,在采购,生产,使用和服务终止 阶段的产品生命周期。


Sustaining innovation / 持续创新

Sustaining innovation:    does not create new markets or value networks but only develops existing ones with better value, allowing the companies to compete against each other’s sustaining improvements.



SWOT Analysis / SWOT 分析

SWOT Analysis:    “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats” Analysis. A SWOT analysis evaluates a company in terms of its advantages and disadvantages versus competitors, customer requirements, and market/economic environmental conditions.

SWOT 分析: 对优势、劣势、机遇和威胁进行分析。SWOT 分析从其竞争对手、客户需求、市场或经济环境的角度对公司进行优势/劣势评价。


Target Market / 目标市场

Target Market:    The group of consumers or potential customers selected for marketing. This market segment is most likely to buy the products within a given category. These are sometimes called “prime prospects.”

Task / 任务

Task:    The smallest describable unit of accomplishment in completing a deliverable.



Team / 团队

Team: defined as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, with a clear set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable

团队:参与新产品开发项目的人员。通常每位团队成员代表一种职能、一个部门或一个专业。他们彼此协作充分发挥各自的能力就能完成项目。( 见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 9 章和 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 6 章)


Team Leader / 团队领导

Team Leader:    The person leading the new product team. Responsible for ensuring that milestones and deliverables are achieved, but may not have any authority over project participants. (See Sections 1 and 2 of    The PDMA ToolBook    for 8 product development tools for Team Leaders.)

团队领导:领导新产品开发团队的人员,负责确保产品有所突破并上市,但其无法超越项目参与者的职权。(见 PDMA 工具书的第一和第 2 部分关 于团队领导的
8 种开发工具)


Technology foresighting / 技术展望

Technology foresighting: a process for looking into the future to predict    technology trends and the potential impact on the organization.


Technology Road Map / 技术路线图

Technology Road Map:    A graphic representation of technology evolution or technology plans mapped against time. It is used to guide new technology development for or technology selection in developing new products.


Technology strategy / 技术战略

Technology strategy: a plan for the maintenance and development of technologies that supports the future growth of the organization and aids the achievement of its strategic goals.



Technology Transfer / 技术转移

Technology Transfer:    The process of converting scientific findings from research laboratories into useful products by the commercial sector. May also be referred to as the process of transferring technology between alliance partners.



Technology-Driven / 技术驱动

Technology-Driven:    A new product or new product strategy based on the strength of a technical capability. Sometimes called “solutions in search of problems.”


Test Markets / 测试市场

Test Markets:    The launching of a new product into one or more limited geographic regions in a very controlled manner, and measuring consumer response to the product and its launch. When multiple geographies are used in the test, different advertising or pricing policies may be tested and the results compared.


Time to Market / 上市时间

Time to Market:    The length of time it takes to develop a new product from an early initial idea for a new product to initial market sales. Precise definitions of the start and end point vary from one company to another, and may vary from one project to another within the company.



Top down portfolio selection / 自上而下的产品组合选择

Top down portfolio selection: Also known as the strategic bucket method, relies on starting with strategy and placing significant emphasis on project selection according to this strategy.

Total Quality Management (TQM) / 全面质量管理

Total Quality Management (TQM):    A business improvement philosophy that comprehensively and continuously involves all of an organization’s functions in improvement activities.



Triple bottom line / 三重底线

Triple bottom line:    reports an organization’s performance against 3 dimensions: Financial, Social, Environmental



Triple constraint / 三重约束

Triple constraint:    the combination of the three most significant restrictions on any project: scope, schedule and cost.    The triple constraint    is sometimes referred to as the project management triangle or the iron triangle

三重约束:对任何项目的三个最重要的限制的组合:范围,进度和成本。 三重约束有时被称为项目管理三角形或铁三角形

TRIZ / 创新性解决问题理论

TRIZ:    The acronym for the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, which is a Russian, systematic method of solving problems and creating multiple-alternative solutions. It is based on an analysis and codification of technology solutions from millions of patents. The method enhances creativity by getting individuals to think beyond their own experience and to reach across disciplines to solve problems using solutions from other areas of science.


Unarticulated customer needs / 未明确的客户需求

Unarticulated customer needs: those needs that a customer is either unwilling or unable to explain.



User / 用户

User:    Any person who uses a product or service to solve a problem or obtain a benefit, whether or not they purchase it. Users may consume a product, as in the case of a person using shampoo to clean their hair or eating a potato chip to assuage hunger between meals. Users may not directly consume a product, but may interact with it over a longer period of time, like a family owning a car, with multiple family members using it for many purposes over a number of years.
Products also are employed in the production of other products or services, where the users may be the manufacturing personnel who operate the equipment.

如,一个家庭拥有一辆汽车,家庭中不同成员会在多年使用它以满足不同需 要。产品可用来生产其它产品或服务,如用户可能是操作该设备的生产人员。


Value / 价值

Value:    Any principle to which a person or company adheres with some degree of emotion. It is one of the elements that enter into formulating a strategy.


Value Proposition / 价值主张

Value Proposition:    A short, clear, and simple statement of how and on what dimensions a product concept will deliver value to prospective customers. The essence of “value” is embedded in the tradeoff between the benefits a customer receives from a new product and the price a customer pays for it. (see Chapter 3 of the    PDMA ToolBook 1).

价值主张:对于产品概念向潜在客户传递价值的简短以及明确的陈述。“价值” 的本质植根于用户从新产品中获得的收益和为它所付出的价钱之间的 协调一致。(见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 3 章)


Value-added / 附加值

Value-added:    The act or process by which tangible product features or intangible service attributes are bundled, combined or packaged with other features and attributes to create a competitive advantage, reposition a product or increase sales.



Virtual Team / 虚拟团队

Virtual Team:    Dispersed teams that communicate and work primarily electronically may be called virtual teams.

Vision / 愿景

Vision:    An act of imagining, guided by both foresight and informed discernment, that reveals the possibilities as well as the practical limits in new product development. It depicts the most desirable, future state of a product or organization.


Visions / 《展望》

Visions:    The new product development practitioner-oriented magazine of the PDMA.

《展望》:PDMA 创办的以创业者为导向的新产品开发杂志。


Voice of the Customer (VOC) / 客户心声

Voice of the Customer (VOC):    A process for eliciting needs from consumers that uses structured in-depth interviews to lead interviewees through a series of situations in which they have experienced and found solutions to the set of problems being investigated. Needs are obtained through indirect questioning by coming to understand how the consumers found ways to meet their needs, and, more important, why they chose the particular solutions they found. (See Chapter 11 of        The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

客户心声(VOC):为了找出问题的解决方法,对消费者的一系列经验和环境进行深层次的系统采访,以提炼出客户需求的过程。通过间接调查 了解消费者如何满足自身需求以及他们选择解决方式的原因,进而最终确定消费者需求。(见PDMA 工具书的第 11 章)


Waste / 损耗

Waste:    Any activity that utilizes equipment, materials, parts, space, employee time, or other corporate resource beyond minimum amount required for value-added operations to ensure
manufacturability. These activities could include waiting, accumulating semi-processed parts, reloading, passing materials from one hand to the other, and other nonproductive processes. The seven basic categories of waste that a business should strive to eliminate: overproduction, waiting for machines, transportation time, process time, excess inventory, excess motion, and defects.

损耗:超额使用设备、原料、零件、场地、用工时间或其它公司资源,增加成 本,减少收益的行为。这些行为包括等待、增加半成品零件、重复装 运、原料传递和其它非生产流程。有 7 类基本损耗是公司应该尽量减少的:生产过剩、等待机器时间、运输时间、流程时间、过度存货、过度运转 和缺损。


Waterfall process / 瀑布过程

Waterfall process:    a sequential design    process, used in
software    development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, production/implementation and maintenance.

瀑布过程:一个顺序设计过程,用于软件开发过程,其中进展被视为在概念, 启动,分析,设计,构造,测试,生产/实施和维护阶段稳定地向下流动(如瀑布)。


Whole Product / 完整产品

Whole Product:    A product definition concept that emphasizes delivering all aspects of a product which are required for it to deliver its full value. This would include training materials, support systems, cables, how to recipes, additional hardware/software, standards and procedures, implementation, applications consulting – any constitutive elements necessary to assure the customer will have a successful experience and achieve at least minimum required value from the product.

完整产品:一种产品定义,强调产品的全方位价值应得到完全体现。具体包括培训材料、支持系统、电缆、其他软件/硬件、标准和程序、实施、  应用咨询等。完整产品的各要素由公司的合作者提供。这一术语通常应用于高科技产品的设计。
Workplan / 工作计划

Workplan:    Detailed plan for executing the project, identifying each phase of the project, the major steps associated with them, and the specific tasks to be performed along the way. Best practice workplans identify the specific functional resources assigned to each task, the planned task duration, and the dependencies between tasks. See also, “Gantt chart.




Chapter 1 战略 Strategy (179 单词)

implementation    n.执行sustenance    n. 维持生计, 食物
ongoing adj. 前进的,进行的 n. 前进,举止,行为
offering n. 提供, 奉献物, 牲礼 vbl. 提供, 出价, 奉献fundamental adj. 基本的,根本的,重要的 n. 基本原理,基础insight    n. 洞察力
expand    vt. 增加,详述,扩展,使...膨胀 vi. 扩展,增加,详述
extinction    n.熄灭; 消灭,灭绝; 废除; [物]消光,自屏,衰减carry out    vt. 实行(执行,实现)
cross section 横切面,剖面,样品,抽样
differentiate    vt. 识别, 使差异, 求导数, 区分, 区别对待 vi. 区别,变异
definition    n. 定义, 阐释,清晰度
clear    adj. 清楚的,明确的,澄清的,头脑清醒的 vt. 澄清,清除障碍, 使明亮, 明确 vi.  变清晰, 消失, 放晴 adv. 清楚地, 一直 n. 间隙, 空地, 开旷的地方
overall    adj. 全部的, 全体的, 一切在内的 adv. 总的来说, 全部地 n. 防护服,罩衫
broadly adv. 宽广地, 明白地, 概括地 adv. 无礼貌地hierarchy    n. 等级制度,层级[计],统治集团emphasis    n. 强调,重点
collaboration n. 合作, 通敌
establish    v. 建立, 确立, 创办
content n. 内容, 目录, 含量 adj. 满足的, 满意的 vt. 使...满足, 使...安心engrain     vt.染成木纹色,使根深蒂固,[喻]使遍体渗透 adj.根深蒂固的explicit    adj. 明确的,详述的,明晰的,外在的
sacrosanct    adj.  神圣不可侵犯的embed    vt. 栽种,使嵌入,使深留脑中identity n. 身份,一致,特征
distinguish    vt. 区别,辨认,特别关注 vi. 区别foundation    n. 基础;地基;基金会;根据;创立creed    n. 信条, 教义
adhere    vi. 坚守于, 对...忠贞, 紧抓着, 遵守 vt. 使附着, 使粘牢
critically adv. 批评性地, 爱挑剔地, 重要地, 危急地vary    vt. 改变,使多样化 vi. 变化,违背multifaceted adj. 多层面的
overarching    adj. 包罗万象的;影响一切的
diversified    adj.多变化的,各种的synergy n. 增效作用,协同作用
whole    adj. 整个的, 完全的, 未受损的, (人)全面发展的 n. 全部,  通常情况 adv.  完全地, 统一地
discuss    vt. 讨论
aggregate    n. 合计, 总计, 集合体 adj. 合计的, 集合的, 聚合的 v. 聚集, 集合, 合计
division n. 区分,分开,除法,公司,部门,师(军队里)
integrate    v. 整合, 使...成整体
articulate    adj. 有关节的,发音清晰的 vt. &vi. 以关节连接,接合,明白地说
stipulate    vt. &vi. 规定,保证 adj. 有明文规定的
align    vt. 使成一行, 使一致, 使结盟, 调整, 排列 vi. 成一条线
grab bag    n.摸彩袋,(各色人等、各种成分的)混杂,聚合
coordinate    n. 同等的人物; (色调, 图案, 样式等)配套服装 adj. 同等的,  等位的; (大学)男女分院制的 v. 协调, 整合; 使一致 [计算机] 坐标
imperative    n. 命令, 诫命, 需要 adj. 命令式的, 急需的
tailored adj. 特制的,合身的
evaluate vt. 评估,评价
trade off    v.交替换位,交替使用;卖掉;  权衡pharmaceutical    adj. 药物的(医药的) n. 药品(成药) appropriate    adj. 适当的, 相称的 vt. 拨出(款项); 占用approach    n. 接近; 途径, 方法 v. 靠近, 接近, 动手处理starting point n. 起点, 出发点
landscape    n. 风景,山水,风景画 v. 美化…的景观,进行造园工程
no mean    相当的,很好的
relative adj. 相对的,比较的,涉及到的 n. 亲属,同类事物,相关物
allocate v. 分派, 分配, 分配额
disruptive    adj. 捣乱的, 破坏性的, 制造混乱的
limo    n. 豪华轿车 <口>=limousine
quadrant    象限
disrupt    adj. 分裂的,分散的 v. 使...分裂,使...瓦解
refer    vt. 把…提交; 把...归因, 归类为 vi. 谈及, 咨询, 参考
sustaining    adj. 支持的,  持续的architectural adj. 建筑的,建筑学的,建筑术的disruption    n. 分裂, 毁坏
context    n. 上下文, 环境,背景
intrinsical    adj. 内在的,固有的,实质的
contrast  n.对比,对照; 差异; 对照物,对立面; [摄]反差trap    n. 圈套,陷阱,困境,双轮轻便马车 vt. &vi. 设圈套,设陷阱
overnight    n. 前晚 adj. 通宵的, 晚上的, 前夜的 adv. 在前一夜, 整夜, 昨晚一晚上
creep    vi. 爬, 蔓延 n. 爬, 徐行, 蠕动disregard        n. 不理会, 漠视 vt. 忽视, 不顾deficiency    n. 缺乏,不足,缺点
overcome    vt. 战胜,克服,(感情等)压倒, 使受不了 vi. 获胜, 赢
embrace    n. 拥抱 v. 拥抱,互相拥抱,包含
segment    n. 部分 v. 部分,段,分割 vt. 分割
specific    adj. 特殊的, 明确的, 具有特效的 n. 特效药, 特性, 详情
foothold n. 立足处, 据点, 根据地
influential    adj. 有权势的,有影响的 n. 有影响力的人物
inferior    adj. 次等的, 较低的, 不如的
in time    迟早; 最后; 及时; 经过一段时间之后
significantly    adv. 较大地(重要地)
outweigh    v. 比...为重, 比...重要, 比...有价值
utilize    vt. 利用
absorb    v. 吸收,吸引...的注意,使全神贯注
purist    n. 纯化论者,纯粹主义者
broad    adj.宽阔的; 广泛的; 概括的; 明显的 n.婆娘segmentation        n.分割,[生]细胞分裂,[计]程序分段scope    n. 能力,范围,眼界,机会,余地 vt. 仔细研究commodity    n. 商品, 日用品
throughput    n. 产量,吞吐量
frill n. 衣饰上的绉边, 褶皱 (复数)frills: 虚饰,装腔作势 vt. 加褶边于
minor    adj. 次要的, 较小的, 二流的, 未成年的 n. 未成年人, 辅修科目, [音乐]小调 vi.
margin    n. 差额,利润,页边空白,边缘 vt. 使围绕于,加边缘profit    n. 利润, 盈利比率,利益 vi. 利用,获利 vt. 有益于profit margin n. 利润率
intimacy n. 亲昵的言行,熟悉,亲密,密切关系
sound    vt.  听(诊);测量,测…深;使发声;试探;宣告 n.  声音,语音;噪音;海峡;吵闹;听力范围;[医] 探条 adj.  健全的,健康的;合理的;可靠的;有效彻底的 adv.  彻底地,充分地 vi. 听起来;发出声音;回响;测深
foresight    n. 远见, 深谋远虑
relatively    adv. 比较地, 相对地
ntimate adj. 亲密的,私人的,秘密的 n. 密友 vt. 透露,暗示
specialized    专门的 专科的prospector    n. 探矿者,投机家reactor    n. 反应者,反应堆duress    n. 强迫, 监禁
averse    adj. 厌恶的, 反对的reverse engineering    反向工程state-owned adj. 州立的,国营的
stream    n. (人,车,气)流,水流,组 vt. 流出,飘动 vi. 流动,飘动,接踵而来derivative    adj. 引出的,系出的 n. 引出之物,系出物,衍生字 n. 导数, 微商efficiently    adv.有效率地,有效地
underlying    adj. 在下面的, 基本的, 隐含的
implement    n. 工具, 器具; 当工具的物品 vt. 实施, 执行; 向...提供工具(或手段) leverage n. 杠杆作用, 影响力 v. 举债经营, 贷款投机
significant    adj. 有意义的, 意味深长的; 相当数量的; 重要的,  重大的 n. (复)有意义的事物; 标志
floor plan        (楼房设计的)平面图chassis    n. 底盘
rear    n. 后面,背后,臀部 adj. 后面的,背面的,后方的 vt. 养育,饲养,举起,建立 vi. 高耸, 用后腿站立
axle    n. 轮轴, 车轴
competitive edge n. 竞争优势,竞争地位
complement n. 补语;余角;补足物;补体 vt. 补足,补助seen as    被 看 作 是                        demographic 人口统计学的 adj. 人口的,人口统计的contributor    n. 贡献者,  捐助者,  赠送者,投稿人encapsulate    v. 装入胶囊, 封进内部, 压缩
breadth n. 宽 度
distribution    n. 分发, 分配, 散布, 分布
marketing mix        销售组合aesthetics    n. 美学,审美学trade fair    商品交易会
publicity n. 公众的注意,宣传,宣扬,宣传品,广告
penetration    n. 渗透,侵入,突破,
skimming    n. 撇沫,撇取,浏览 动词 skim 的现在分词tangible   adj.  有形的,  可触摸的,  确凿的,  实际的augment    vt. 增加,补充 vi.扩大 n. 增加,补充物consistent    adj. 始终如一的, 一致的, 坚持的
sleek    adj. 光滑的,井然有序的 v. 使光滑,梳拢styling    n. 造型,式样,设计 动词 style 的现在分词market share 市场占有率
divest    v. 剥除, 脱去,剥夺,摆脱
proposition    n.  (难办或诱人的)事情,任务;见解;观点;(美国的)法律修正案;提议;建议;提案 vt. 向…提出下流的要求;向…提出猥亵的要求
reactive adj. 反动的, 反应性的, 反冲的
proactive    adj. 先发制人的, 〈心理〉前摄的; 〈自控〉有前瞻性的, 先行一步的
strategic adj. 战略的,重要的,基本的
optimize        v. 使...完美,乐观,使...完善 v.优化ad hoc    特定, 专门, 临时
monetization n.当作货币,铸造货币mitigate v. 镇静,缓和,减轻 v. 缓和realization    n. 实现,领悟,实得capability    n. 能力,才能,性能,容量
partially adv. 部份地, 一部份地, 不公平地purposive    adj.       有目的的,       故意的inflow    n. 流入(物)
outflow vi. 流出 n. 流出,流出物respectively    adv. 各自地, 分别地permeable    adj. 可渗透的
inward    adj. 内心的,里面的 向内的,亲密的 adv. 向内 n.内部,内在outward adj. 向外的, 表面的, 外部的 adv. 向外, 在外, 表面
spin off    vt. 作为副产品等而生产(摆脱) clarity    n. 清楚, 透明
intent    n. 意图,目的,意向, 含义 adj. 专心的,决心的,热心的
assumption    n. 假定,设想,担任(职责等),假装
tendency    n. 趋势,倾向
valid    adj. 有确实根据的; 有效的; 正当的, 合法的
envision n. 预想 v. 想象,预想 vt. 想象
append v. 附加,添加,悬挂 n.[计算机] DOS 命令建立数据文件的子目录搜索路经
validation    n. 确认
constraint    n. 约束, 强制, 约束条件, 对感情的压抑, 虚情假意 [计算机] 限制
theatrical    adj. 剧场的, 夸张的
denote    vt. 象征,表示
sporting adj. 喜好运动的,运动用的,冒险性的
take place    v. 发生, 顶替
expenditure    n. (时间、劳力、金钱等)支出,使用,消耗involvement    n. 包含, 缠绕, 混乱, 复杂的情况roadmap    n.路标
initiative    adj. 创始的, 初步的, 自发的 n. 第一步, 首创精神; 主动权
intend    v. 打算 vt. 想要,打算,计划
literature    n. 文学, 文献
harmonize    v. 协调,使和谐,用和声唱

Chapter 2 组合管理 Portfolio Management (55 单词)

in turn    依次,轮流 反之,反过来
maintenance n. 维护, 保持, 维修, 生活费用 n. 供给, 抚养; 主张
invariably    adv. 不变化地, 一定不变地, 常常地
interdependent    adj. 相互依赖的, 互助的
in terms of    adj. 按照(依据,用...词句,用...来,通过) pipeline n. 管道, 管线
thinly    adv.薄薄地,稀疏地,细细地
set out    出发 v. 规划,展现 v. 出发,开始
optimal adj. 最佳的, 最理想的
ideation n. 构思能力, 思维能力, 构思过程
execution        n. 实行,完成,执行reliance n. 信赖,所信赖的人或物linkage    n. 连合, 连锁, 结合
characteristic adj. 特有的, 典型的 n. 特性, 特征, 特色
completion    n. 完成,完满derive    v. 得自, 起源, 引申于breakthrough        n.  突破strive    v. 努力,奋斗,力争
incremental    adj. 增量的,增加的
competitive    adj. 竞争的, 比赛的
breakdown    n. 崩溃,故障,分类,腐烂,失败,一种街舞
as a whole    adv. 整个来说(总体上)
top down    adj. 自顶向下的,从整体到细节的
bottom up    倒置,颠倒,倒着
strict    adj.  严格的,  精确的,  完全的subjective    adj. 主观的 n. 主格,主观事物nevertheless adv. 仍然, 不过 conj. 然而, 不过readily    adv. 不迟疑地,迅速地,轻易地
reasonably    adv. 适度地, 相当地,合理地,有理性地
feasibility    n.可行性,可能性implication    n. 暗示,含意
funnel    n. 漏斗;烟囱 vt. 通过漏斗或烟囱等;使成漏斗形 vi. 通过漏斗等;成漏斗形
worthwhile    adj. 值得(做)的
consistency    n. 坚持, 一致性, 强度, 硬度, 浓稠度
carry forward vt. 推进(转入或下周)
assign    v. 分配,指派 n.[计算机] DOS 命令将驱动器符重指向第二个驱动器符
criterion n. 标准, 准则
weighting        n. 加权,加重, 称量, 评价 adj. 额外的(开销等) viable    adj. 能生存的,可行的,能居住的的
namely    adv. 即,  也就是cumulative    adj. 累积的,附加的analyse vt. 分析, 检讨, 细察guestimate    n.依推测的估计,推测
crude    adj. 粗鲁的,简陋的,天然的,未加工的 n. 原油proportional adj. 成比例的,相称的 n. [数]比例项representation    n. 表示法,表现,陈述,答辩
proportion    n. 比例,均衡,部分 vt. 使成比例,使均衡,分摊
alignment    n. 队列,成直线;校准;结盟
plot    n. 阴谋, 情节,图, (小块)土地, v. 绘图, 密谋, 计划,标示位置
allocation    n. 配置, 分配, 安置
overload    v. 超载,过载,超过负荷 n. 超载,负荷过多 [计算机] 过载
against    prep.    反对,倚靠,违背,防御,相比,相对individual        adj.  个别的;  独有的 n.  个人,  个体plague    n. 瘟疫, 麻烦, 灾祸 vt. 折磨, 烦扰, 造成麻烦

Chapter 3 新产品流程 New Products Process (115 单词)

multidisciplinary    adj.包括各种学科的,有关各种学问的; 多学科; 多部门; 多科目
uncertainty    n. 不确定, 不可靠, 半信半疑 (学术)不可信度; 偏差
stake    n. 木桩,赌注,股份 vt. 打赌,下赌注;用桩支撑decrease        n. 减少(量),降低 vt.& vi.  减少,降低amount n. 数量, 总额 vi. 总计, 等于
bold adj. 大胆的,粗体的,醒目的,无礼的,陡峭的sentiment n.  感情,  情趣,  意见,观点,  多愁善感scale up 按比例增加
prior    adj. 更重要的, 较早的, 在先的 adv. 居先 n. 小修道院院长; 大修道院副院长
discipline    n. 训练, 纪律, 惩罚; 学科 vt. 训练, 惩罚
repetitive    adj. 重复的
embryonic    adj. 胚胎的, 萌芽期的
salable    adj. 适于销售的,有销路的 =saleable formalization n.形式化,礼仪化
in-depth adj. 深入的, 彻底的
submission    n.    服从,柔和,提交qualitative    adj. 性质上的, 质的, 定性的transparent    adj. 透明的, 明显的, 清晰的rigid    adj. 僵硬的,刻板的,严格的perceive v. 察觉, 感觉, 认知, 理解
stifling    adj. 令人窒息的 动词 stifle 的现在分词linear    adj.  直线的,线性的,长度的sequential    adj. 连续的(序贯的)
intention        n. 意图,意向,目的originator        n. 创始人, 发起人verification    n. 确认, 查证, 作证ambiguous    adj.  模棱两可的ample    adj. 充足的,丰富的,宽敞的
expertise    n. 专家的意见,专门技术
duration n. 持续时间,期间
restrict    v. 限制,约束
spiral    n. 旋涡, 螺旋形之物 adj. 螺旋形的,  盘旋的 v.  成螺旋状下降或上升,  成螺旋状旋转
concurrent    adj. 同时发生的
intend to    想要,打算
premise vt. 引出,预先提出;作为…的前提 n. 前提;上述各项;房屋连地基 vi. 作出前提
producibility n.可生产
disposal n. 处理,消除,销毁,处置 n. 弃菜碾碎器computational        adj. 计算的,电脑的effectively    adv. 事实上,有效地
rationale        n. 基本原理(理论基础的说明,原理的阐述) breed    n. 品种,族类 vt. 养育,繁殖,引起 vi. 繁殖
lean    n. 瘦肉,倾斜,弯曲 adj. 瘦的,贫乏的,歉收的 vi. 倚靠,倾斜,依赖 vt. 使倾斜
methodology n. 一套方法,方法学futility    n. 无用, 无益, 无价值idleness n.闲散,懒惰,赋闲无事
chaotic    adj. 混沌的;混乱的,无秩序的rigorous adj. 严厉的,严酷的,严格的,细致的variation        n. 变化,变动,变种,变奏曲
towering    adj. 高耸的, 激烈的,杰出的 动词 tower 的现在分词形式relentless    adj.不懈的; 坚韧的,不屈不挠的; 不间断的; 未减轻的heavy hand    严厉手段
event driven   [计]  事件驱动simplify v. 简化, 使单纯 vt. 简化unified    v. 统一 adj.  统一的willing    adj. 愿意的, 心甘情愿的beneficial        adj. 有益的,有利的iterative adj. 迭代的, 重复的
cadence n. 节奏, 韵律,降调句,抑扬顿挫
manifesto    n. 宣言, 声明 vi. 发表宣言
agile    adj. (动作)敏捷的,灵活的,(头脑)机灵的
uncover vt. 揭开,揭露
motivate    v. 给与动机,刺激,提高...的学习欲望
convey    vt. 传达,运输,转移 [计算机] 输送
measure    n. 措施, 办法, 量度, 尺寸 v. 测量, 量
constant    adj. 经常的, 不变的 n. 常数, 恒量
pace    n. 速度,步调,步法 vt. 踱步,调整节奏 vi. 缓慢地走
indefinitely    adv. 无限地(在长时期内,无穷地) agility    n. 敏捷, 灵活, 轻快
simplicity    n. 单纯, 简朴
interval n. 间隔,休息时间, (数学)区间, (音乐)音程backlog n. 积累(积压待办事项) vi. 把...积压起来
scrum    n. (橄榄球赛中)双方球员争球 n. 疯狂的马,多而乱的一群人
sole    adj. 唯一的, 独占的 n. 脚底, 鞋底; sole 或 soles 鳎鱼 vt. 给(鞋)换底
arguably adv. 可论证地,可辩论地
sprint    vi. 全力奔跑,冲刺 n. 短距离赛跑,冲刺 n. 斯普林特(财富 500 强公司之一,  总部所在地美国, 主要经营电讯)
temptation    n. 诱惑,引诱; 诱惑物facilitator    n. 帮助者,推进者empower    vt. 授与权力,增加自主权empowerment    n. 授权
up to date    adj. 最近的, 最新的comprise    vt. 包含,构成autonomy    n. 自治
increment    n. 增加(增加物, 增量, 余差) quantify v. 定量, 表示份量, 称量, 量化rectify    vt. 订正,矫正,改正
cope    v. (with)竞争,对抗,对付,妥善处理 vi. 对付,妥善处理
issue    n. 问题;流出;期号;发行物 vt. 发行,发布;发给;放出,排出 vi. 发行;流出; 造成…结果;传下
overhead    n. 经常开支,普通用费 adj. 在头上的,高架的 adv. 在头顶上,在空中,在高处
[计算机] 总开销
tempted to    被诱惑去做, 总想做
novice    n. 新手,初学者
frustrating    adj. 使人沮丧的,令人泄气的
demoralization    n.道德败坏,纪律松弛,士气消沉
inverse    adj. 相反的,倒转的 n. 相反的事物,(数学)逆反函数, 倒数, 负数conduct n. 行为, 举动, 品行 v. 引导,  指挥,  管理 vt.  导电,  传热regression    n. 复原,逆行,退步
regard    vt.认为; 注视; 涉及; 尊敬 vi.凝视; 留意 n.凝视; 留意; 尊敬; 问候
embody vt. 代表, 使具体化, 包含,使(精神)肉体化
entirety n. 全 部
distill    v. 蒸馏, 滴下,吸取,提炼
synthesize    v.  合成
comparison    n.  比较
informed    adj. 见多识广的 v. 通告,告发 vbl. 通告,告发
whereas conj.&adv. 然而,却,反之
albeit    conj. 虽然(即使)
mature adj. 成熟的, 到期的,  充分发育的,  考虑周到的 vt.  使...成熟,  长成 vi.  长成,  成熟; 到期
formulate    vt. 规划;用公式表示;明确地表达
complementary    adj. 补充的, 互补的
substitute    n. 代替者,代用品 v. 代替 vi. (for)代替 vt. 用...代替,代以
macro    adj. 巨大的,大范围的,总的 n. [计算机]宏tactical    adj. 战术上的, 战术性的, 足智多谋的abbreviate    vt. 缩写,缩短,使...简略
vitally    adv. 重要地,极其,生命攸关地
applicable    adj. 合适的,适用的
merit    n. 功绩, 价值,优点 v. 博得,值得或应得
stakeholder    n. 保管赌注的人, 利益相关者
Chapter 4 文化,组织和团队Culture,Organization and Teams (171

ultimately    adv. 最后,最终
climate    n. 气候, 风气, 气氛
infer    vt. 推断,猜测,暗示 vi. 推论
rite n. 仪式, 典礼
pattern    n. 图案, 式样, 典范 v. 以图案装饰; 仿造, 模仿
perceive v. 察觉, 感觉, 认知, 理解possess v. 持有,克制,为...着迷inclusion    n. 包含
diversity  n.  多样化,(人在种族、民族、宗教等方面的)多样性; 差异; 分歧 vt.  使不同,使多样化
forgiveness    n. 宽恕, 宽仁之心 动词 forgive 的名词形式
permission    n. 同意,许可,允许
capacity n. 能力, 容量, 容积; 资格, 职位 adj. (达到最大容量)满的endeavor    n. 努力, 尽力, 进取心 vt. 努力,尽力 vi. 企图, 谋求
garner    v. 贮藏, 积累, 得到 n.谷仓 Garner: 加纳(姓氏) Garner: 加纳,约翰·南希(1868-
1967),美国政治家,于 1933-1941 年任美国副总统
personal    adj. 私人的,个人的 n. (报刊的)私人专栏
failing    n. 失败, 缺点, 过失 prep. 如果没有,若无…时 动词 fail 的现在分词
passive    adj. 被动的,消极的 n. 被动性
motivate    v. 给与动机,刺激,提高...的学习欲望
intellectual    n. 有知识者,知识份子,凭理智做事者 adj. 智力的,知性的,聪明的
critically adv. 批评性地, 爱挑剔地, 重要地, 危急地
procurement n. 取得, 征购, 斡旋, 促成
vested    adj. [法律]既定的, 穿好衣服的 动词 vest 的过去式和过去分词
certified adj. 经证明合格的, 具有证明文件的
ensure    vt. 确定,保证,担保
hand down    把...传下来
akin    adj. 血族的, 同族的, 同种的
midwife n. 助产士, 接生婆mutually    adv. 互相地accountable    adj.  负有责任的
representation    n. 表示法,表现,陈述,答辩ideally    adv. 理想地, 完美地,观念上地contribution    n. 贡献,捐款(赠)
sought    vbl. 寻找,搜索(seek 的过去式和过去分词) trait    n. 特征,特点,特性,品质
desirable    adj. 值得有的,令人满意的,有吸引力的 n. 有吸引力的人
extensive    adj. 广泛的,广阔的
justify    vt. 替...辩护,证明...正当 n. 对齐 [计算机] 调整
engagement n. 诺言, 约会, 婚约, 交战, 雇用, (机器零件等)啮合greater    adj. 大的, 包括市区及郊区的
esteem    n. 尊敬 vt. 认为,尊敬
conflict    n.冲突; 战斗; 相互干扰; 矛盾 vi.抵触; 争斗; 战斗; 冲突
integrity n. 诚实, 正直, 完整, 完善
reputation    n. 声誉,好名声
impact    n. 冲击(力), 冲突, 影响(力) vt. 挤入, 压紧; 撞击; 对...发生影响
confidentiality        n. 秘而不宣, 保密interference    n. 冲突, 干涉 [计算机] 干涉adjourn v. 延期, 休会, 换地方
socialize vt. 使...社会化,使...社会主义化,使适应社会需要 vi. 交际
friction    n. 摩擦,摩擦力,分歧disband v. 解散,使退伍 v. 解散motivation    n.  动 机ownership    n.  所有权proximity        n. 接近,亲近
grid    n.格子,非实质的; 地图上的坐标方格; (输电线路、天然气管道等的)系统网络
merit    n. 功绩, 价值,优点 v. 博得,值得或应得
dedicate vt. 献出,提献辞,致力于
nominal adj. 名义上的,有名无实的,名词性的 n. 名词词组
torn    vbl. 撕开,扯裂(tear 的过去分词) liaison    n. 联络
advancement    n. 前进, 进步
in terms of    adj. 按照(依据,用...词句,用...来,通过) congruence    n. 适合,一致,相合性
turf    n. 草皮,泥炭,跑马场 v. 铺草皮 n. 地盘,势力范围
idle adj. 无目的的, 无聊的; 懒惰的, 闲散的; 无根据的 vt.虚度; 使空闲 vi. 不作事, 闲逛;
frustrate    vt. 挫败,击败,破坏 adj. 无益的,挫败的,挫折的prescribe    vi. 规定,开药方 vt. 规定,命令,开处方 vigorous adj. 精力充沛的,元气旺盛的,有力的
facilitate vt. 帮助, 使...容易, 促进
sensory adj. 知觉的, 感觉的, 知觉器官的
ideation n. 构思能力, 思维能力, 构思过程
concrete    n. 水泥,混凝土 adj. 具体的,实在的,水泥的 vt. &vi. 凝结,结合
consumer    n. 消费者,用户,  消费品scamper n. 蹦跳 v. 奔跑,快跑 vi. 涉猎,浏览stimulus n. 刺激, 激励, 刺激品
substitute    n. 代替者,代用品 v. 代替 vi. (for)代替 vt. 用...代替,代以
verbalize        vt. 使变成动词(用词语描述,累赘) pertain    vi. 从属, 关于
pitfall    n. 陷阱,诱惑,阴谋
exploit    n. 功绩,勋绩 vt.&vi. 开发,利用,开拓
demographic 人口统计学的 adj. 人口的,人口统计的ethical    adj. 伦理的;道德的;凭处方出售的forecast n. 预测,预报 vt. &vi. 预测
aggregate    n. 合计, 总计, 集合体 adj. 合计的, 集合的, 聚合的 v. 聚集, 集合, 合计
divergent    adj. 分歧的
convergent    adj. 趋集于一点的,会聚性的,收敛的
inherently    adv.天性地,固有地
conservative adj. 保守的,守旧的 n. 保守派(党),保守的人
role    n. 角色,影响程度
cast    n. 演员阵容, 投掷 v. 投, 掷, 抛
clearly    adv. 清楚地
inherent adj. 内在的, 固有的cumulative    adj. 累积的,附加的realise    v.觉悟,明白
hurdle rate    停止投资率,最低预期资本回收率
accuracy    n. 准确(性), 精确度
breakeven    adj. 无亏损的, 无盈亏的, 无胜负的
capital    n. 首都,资本,大写字母 adj. 大写的,资本的,首要的
diffusion        n. 散布, 传播, 蔓延variation        n. 变化,变动,变种,变奏曲what if    如果...将会怎么样
relevant adj. 相关的, 切题的, 中肯的
wholesale    n. 批发 adj. 批发的, 大规模的, 草率的 adv. 大规模, 照批发, 草率地
receipt    n. 收据
outlay    n.  费用,  经费,  支出 v.  花费
rearrangement    n.  重新整理,调整
discount n. 折扣, 贴现率 vt. 打折扣, 贴现, 不重视,不全信 vi. 贴现, 减息贷款
equate    v. 同等看待, 使相等 vt. 等同, 使相等cash flow        (公司、政府等的)现金流转viability n.生存能力,发育能力
rigorous adj. 严厉的,严酷的,严格的,细致的
spreadsheet    电子表格, 数据表clarity    n. 清楚, 透明quantitative    adj. 数量的,定量的scale up 按比例增加
specification n. 规格,详述,详细说明书
augment    vt. 增加,补充 vi.扩大 n. 增加,补充物
maneuverability    n.可操作性,机动性
lack    vt.缺乏,缺少; 需要的东西 n.缺乏,不足,没有; 缺少的东西
tray    n. 盘,托盘,碟
secure    adj.安全的; 牢固的; 有把握的; 安心的 vt.保护; (使)获得; 使安全; 担保 vi.获得安全,变得安全; 安全,保险; 承保,担保; [航海学]停止工作
carnation    n. 康乃馨(一种花)
familiarity    n. 亲密, 熟悉, 精通,不拘礼节
downstream adv. 下游地 adj. 下游的quantification        n. 定量,量化, 以数量表示objectivity    n. 客观, 客观性
ergonomic    adj. 人类工程学的,人体工学的
fender    n. 挡泥板, 护舷的垫子等
grunge    n. [俚]肮脏,低下,令人讨厌的人 n. 垃圾摇滚
benchmark    n. 基准点, 标准检查程序, 参照点 vt.  检测(竞争对手的产品以比较和改进自身产品)
marginally    adv. 在边上, 边际地 形容词 marginal 的副词形式
attenuation    n.变薄,稀薄化,变细,衰减dropout n. 中途退出者
instill    v. 滴注,逐渐灌输(尤指思想或情感)
pride    n. 高傲,自豪,自尊,一群狮子 vt. 以...自豪
perception    n. 感知, 认识, 观念
tertiary    adj. 第三的,第三位的,第三世纪的 n. 臂翼,第三重音,第三会员
interrelationship    n. 相互关系
adequate    adj. 足够的, 充足的, 适当的, 能胜任的consensus    n. 共识,一致,合意 n. [生理]交感cumbersome adj. 笨重的
tedious    adj. 沉闷的, 单调乏味的exceptionally adv. 例外地,格外地,特别地recast    v. 彻底改动, 重做
characterize    vt. 表示...的典型,赋予...特色algorithmic    adj.[计]算法的,规则系统的inventive    adj. 善于创造的, 发明的spontaneous adj. 自发的, 自然产生的intuitive [计算机] 直觉的
contradiction  n.  反驳,矛盾,不一致,否认
aspect    n. 方面, 外貌,  外观;  方位,  方向trimming        n. 整顿, 休整, 装饰, 边角料, 微调prescriptive    adj. 规定的, 规范的, 约定俗成的warp    n. 弯,歪曲,乖僻 vt. 弄歪,翘曲
lid    n. 盖
somewhat    adv.稍微; 有点; 达到某种程度 n.少量; 某些数量; 某种程度
intertwine    v. 纠缠, 缠绕, 编结
slack    n. 松弛的部分, 松散, 淡季, 中止 adj.  松弛的,  不流畅的 vt.  使缓慢,  疏忽 vi.  变松弛, 逃避工作
parametric    adj.[数][物][晶]参(变) 数的,参(变)量的identification n. 身份的证明 n. 视为同一,证明同一,确认unforeseen    adj. 无法预料的
contingency    n. 偶然, 可能性, 意外事故, 可能发生的附带事件
measure    n. 措施, 办法, 量度, 尺寸 v. 测量, 量
vitality    n. 活力, 生命力
measurement    n. 测量,衡量,尺寸,大小
ample    adj. 充足的,丰富的,宽敞的
literature    n. 文学, 文献
formal    adj. 正式的,形式的,礼节上的,拘谨的 n. 正式(活动)
session    n.开会,会议;(法庭的)开庭; 会期,学期; (进行某活动连续的)一段时间
lagging    n. 绝热材料,支拱板条 adj. 落后的,慢的, 迟缓的 动词 lag 的现在分词
bear    n. 熊 v. 忍受,负荷 v. 结果实,生子女
toolbox n.工具箱

Chapter 5 Tools and metrics (pls ref Chapter 4) (0 单词)


Chapter 6 市场调研 Market research (92 单词)

multivariate    adj.[统][数]多变量的,多元的scenario n. 情节梗概, 剧本
inform    vt.通知; 使活跃,使充满; 预示 vi.通知; 告发
elicit    vt. 引出,诱探出
indirect adj. 间接的, 迂回的,次要的,不坦率的,欺骗的
articulate    adj. 有关节的,发音清晰的 vt. &vi. 以关节连接,接合,明白地说
refinement    n. 精致, 高尚, 精巧
source    n. 来源 v.(从…)获得,网络:源极;资料来源;起源interpret        v. 解释, 演出, 翻译 [计算机] 解释
interpretation    n. 解释,演出,翻译,互動
statistical    adj. 统计的, 统计学的
mean    n.平均值, 平均数; 中部 adj. 低劣的, 卑贱的;  卑鄙的;  吝啬的 adj.  平均的,  中等的 v. 意味, 想要, 意欲
variance n. 不一致, 变化; [数]方差
ill-informed    adj. 消息不灵通的, 所知不多的
confidence    n.信心; 信任; 秘密
conduct n. 行为, 举动, 品行 v. 引导, 指挥, 管理 vt. 导电, 传热
respondent    n.回答者; [法](特指离婚诉讼的)被告; [生]反应,反射 adj.应答的; 有反应的; [法]被告的
interval n. 间隔,休息时间, (数学)区间, (音乐)音程confident    adj. 确信的, 自信的
subset    n. 子集
meant    动词 mean 的过去式和过去分词形式
unbiased    adj. 公正的
elimination    n. 除去, 消除
precision    n. 精确,精密度 adj. 以精准的执行而著称的, 经得起极精细测量的
stratified    v. 分层 adj. 成层的
strata    n. 地层 名词 stratum 的复数形式
stratum n. 地层, 阶层
variable adj. 可变的,易变的 n. 变量, 易变的东西homogeneous    adj. 同种的,同质的,均质的cluster    n. 串,丛,群 v. 聚合,成串,丛生,使...聚集manner n. 样子,礼貌,风格,方式
moderator    n. 调解人, 仲裁人 n. 减速剂 (降低自由中子在核反应堆中速度的物质,  让中子更可能使铀 235 原子裂变, 而较少被铀 238 原子吸收)
adjacent adj. 毗连的,邻近的,接近的unfiltered    adj. 未滤过的questionnaire        n.  调查表suppress    vt. 镇压,使...止住,禁止applicable    adj. 合适的,适用的
finding    n.  发现,  发现物,调查(或研究)的结果,[律]  裁判,裁决 (复数)findings:(珠宝商等使用的)零碎的工具或材料 find 的现在分词
watch out    当心, 提防
yet adv. 还,仍然,即刻 conj. 尽管,然而
paradigm    n. 例子,模范,词形变化表
proposition    n.  (难办或诱人的)事情,任务;见解;观点;(美国的)法律修正案;提议;建议;提案 vt. 向…提出下流的要求;向…提出猥亵的要求
debriefing    n.任务报告, 任务报告中提出的情报 动词 debrief 的现在分词形式
vendor    n. 厂商, 小贩, 卖主, 自动售货机 =vender
premise vt. 引出,预先提出;作为…的前提 n. 前提;上述各项;房屋连地基 vi. 作出前提
cohesion    n. 凝聚力, 团结
detrimental    adj. 有害的 n. 有害的人或事
enlist    v. 徵募, 参与, 支持
requisite    adj. 必要的, 需要的 n. 必需品
ethnographic adj. 民族志学的,人种志学的 =ethnographical ,ethnographic market research
utilize    vt. 利用
immerse    vt. 浸,陷入
dilemma    n. 困境,进退两难
survey    n. 调查; 纵览, 视察, 测量 vt. 审视, 视察, 通盘考虑, 调查; 勘测 vi. 测量, 勘测
raft  n.  筏,  救生艇,  大量 v.   乘筏,  制成筏medium n. 媒体, 方法, 媒介 adj. 适中的, 中等的notoriously    adv. 臭名昭著地,众所周知地
shun    v.   避开,  规避,  避免averse    adj.   厌恶的,   反对的boast    n. 吹牛 vt. &vi. 吹牛,自夸
subject    n. 科目, 主题; 缘由 n. (君主国)国民; 实验对象 adj. 服从的,  易患的 vt.  使隶属, 使服从; 使遭遇
assign    v. 分配,指派 n.[计算机] DOS 命令将驱动器符重指向第二个驱动器符
inference    n. 推理,推论
canvas    n.  帆布,(帆布)画布,油画 instrumental adj. 仪器的,器具的,可做为手段的texture    n. 质地;纹理;结构;本质,实质geographic    adj.地理学的,地理的
expenditure    n. (时间、劳力、金钱等)支出,使用,消耗predictor    n. 预言者
regression    n. 复原,逆行,退步
similarity    n. 相似, 类似
substitutable adj. 可代替的, 可替换的, 可取代的
rate    n. 比率, 等级, 价格 vt. 估价, 认为, 定等级; 责骂 vi. 受欢迎, 受推崇; 责骂
resultant    adj. 作为结果的,合成的 n. 结果, 产物,[数学] 合矢量,结式
bundle    n. 捆,束,一批,一大笔钱 vt. 捆,匆匆送走,附赠 vi. 匆忙rollover n. 滚动翻转,倾翻,翻转砂箱,转台 n. [经]转滚法subconscious adj. 潜意识的,下意识的 n. 潜意识
neat    adj. 整洁的, 巧妙的, 端正的, 极好的, 纯的 adv. 整齐地
sheer    adj. 绝对的,全然的,峻峭的 vt. &vi. 急转,躲避 adv. 完全,全然,峻峭 n. 转向,(甲板的)脊弧,透明薄织物
compensate    vt. &vi. 偿还,补偿,付报酬
perspective    n. 远景, 看法, 透视 adj. 透视的
ticker    n. 滴答作响的东西 n. 股票行情自动收录器 n. <俚语> 表 n. <俚语>  心脏
nugget    n.  金属块,珍品,珍闻,(鸡)块
vein    n. 静脉,纹路,岩脉,情绪,风格,气质 vt. 饰以纹路
mobilisation    n.动员,运用
strand    n.(绳子的)股,绞; 海滨,河岸; (思想等的)一个组成部分 vt.使滞留,使搁浅; 使陷于困境 vi.搁浅; 陷入困境
remedy n. 药物,治疗法,补救 vt. 治疗,补救,矫正unmet    adj. 未满足的, 未相遇的, 未应付的embark vt. &vi. 乘船,着手,从事
ethic    n. 道德规范, 伦理
consent n. 同意, 许可 v. 同意, 承诺
prompt adj.  迅速的,  敏捷的,  立刻的 vt.  激起,  促进,  推动;  提示 vi.  提示 n.  提示;  提示的内容 n. [商]付款期限

Chapter 7 生命周期管理 Life Cycle Management (64 单词)

sustainable    adj. 可以忍受的;足可支撑的;养得起的;可持续的
deletion n. 删 除
penetration    n. 渗透,侵入,突破,
skim    vt. 撇去浮沫,略读,掠过,滑过 vi. 掠过,覆盖了一层浮沫,侵吞钱财 n. 一层浮沫,略读,脱脂物 adj. 撇去浮沫的,由脱脂乳做的
distribution    n. 分发, 分配, 散布, 分布
intensive    adj. 强烈的, 密集的, 精细的, 强调的 n. (语法)强调成份
incentive    adj. 刺激的, 鼓励的 n. 刺激, 鼓励, 动机rejuvenate    v. 使...年轻, 使...恢复精神,变年轻liquidate    v. 偿付, 清算, 扫除 v. 清算, 整理, 破产projection    n. 发射,计划,突出部分
whilst    conj. 当...时, 可是, 虽然,只要
proportion    n. 比例,均衡,部分 vt. 使成比例,使均衡,分摊refreshment    n. 恢复,精神爽快,提神之事物;点心,茶点chasm    n. 深坑, 裂口,分歧
iterative adj. 迭代的, 重复的
vice    n. 恶习,恶行,罪恶,缺陷,恶癖,老虎钳 vt. 钳住 prep. 代替,副,次
versa    adj. 反
compact    adj. 紧凑的,紧密的,简洁的 v. 使装满,使简洁
algorithm    n. 算法
refine    vt. 精炼,净化,使优雅 vi. 被提纯,改进
tenant    n. 房客,佃户 vt. 居住propensity    n. 倾向,习性concentration        n. 集中, 专心, 浓度beachhead    n.滩头阵地,立足点
rollout    n. 首次展示 n. (美式橄榄球)四分卫突破战术sophisticate    n. 久经世故的人 vt. 玩弄诡辩,掺合,弄复杂sturdy    adj. 强健的, 健全的
durable adj. 耐用持久的 n. (复)耐用品
perishable    adj. 易腐烂的, 会枯萎的, 会死的 (复数)perishables:易腐烂的东西(尤指食物)
outlet n. 出口, 出路, 通风口, 批发商店convey vt. 传达,运输,转移 [计算机] 输送resonate    v. 产生共鸣
recognition    n. 认出,承认, 感知,知识
compromising    adj. 折衷的 动词 compromise 的现在分词
externality    n. 外表,外在性,外部的事物
in place 在适当的位置
benign    adj. 仁慈的,温和的,良性的
complimentary    adj. 问候的,称赞的,夸奖的,免费赠送的
transparency n. 透明度, 幻灯片
cradle    n. 摇篮, 发祥地, 摇篮时代 v. 放在摇篮内, 抚育, 刈割
circular    adj. 循环的,圆形的 n. 传单,通报
finite    adj. 有限的
disassemble    v. 解开,分解,拆卸
compliant    adj. 服从的, 顺从的
shape    n. 形状,形式,定形,身材 vt. 定形,使...成形,塑造credit    n. 信用, 荣誉, 贷款, 学分 v. 归功于, 赞颂, 信任prominence    n. 突出;显著;突出物;卓越
precursor    n. 先驱者,前导,先进者
detergent    n. 清洁剂 adj. 用于清洗的
aid n. 帮助,救护,辅助物 vt. &vi. 援助,帮助,救护 abbr.=Agency for International Development
scare    vt. 惊吓(惊恐,惊慌) vi. 受惊吓 n. 惊吓(惊恐,惊慌) disposal n. 处理,消除,销毁,处置 n. 弃菜碾碎器
focal    adj. 焦点的scientific        adj. 科学的declaration    n. 宣布, 宣言
depletion    n. 消耗,罄尽,放血
peer    vi. 凝视,盯着看;窥视 vt. 封为贵族;与…同等 n. 贵族;同等的人
encompass    vt. 围绕(包围, 拥有, 完成) ore n. 矿, 矿石
extraction    n. 抽出, 取出, 抽出物 n.血统accreditation n. 委派, 信赖
transparent    adj. 透明的, 明显的, 清晰的
convince    vt. 说服, 使...相信
transportation    n. 运输, 运输系统, 运输工具

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