NPDP 术语大全

NPDP小编 扫地僧 2023-2-1 676


NPDP 术语

Agile product development / 敏捷产品开发

Agile product development:    an iterative approach to product development that is performed in a collaborative environment by self- organizing teams.

敏捷产品开发:由自组织团队在协作环境中执行的产品开发的迭代方法。

 


Alliance / 联盟

Alliance: Formal arrangement with a separate company for purposes of development, and involving exchange of information, hardware, intellectual property, or enabling technology. Alliances involve shared risk and reward (e.g., co-development projects). (See also Chapter 11 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

联盟: 为了项目开发,与另一个独立公司达成正式协议,涉及信息、硬件、知识产权或其他技术的交流。联盟包括共担风险和分享利润(如共同开发项目 )。
(见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第十一章)。

 

Alpha Test / 阿尔法验证

Alpha Test: Pre-production product testing to find and eliminate the most obvious design defects or deficiencies, usually in a laboratory setting or in some part of the developing firm’s regular operations, although in some cases it may be done in controlled settings with lead customers. See also beta test and gamma test.

阿尔法验证: 在产品开始生产前,对样品进行测试,目的是发现并消除明显的设计缺陷与不足。测试通常在实验室或公司的常规运营环境中进行,有时也在控制条件下面向最初消费者展开。参加见“贝塔验证”和“伽马验证”。
 
Alpha Testing / 阿尔法测试

Alpha Testing: A crucial “first look” at the initial design, usually done in-house. The results of the Alpha test either confirm that the product performs according to its specifications or uncovers areas where the product is deficient. The testing environment should try to simulate the conditions under which the product will actually be used as closely as possible.

阿尔法测试:对原始设计的首次重要检查,通常在公司内完成。阿尔法测试的结果可证明产品是否按照规格设计,也可发现产品不足之处。测试环境应当尽可能模仿产品将来的实际使用环境。

 

Analyzer / 分析者

Analyzer: A firm that follows an imitative innovation strategy, where the goal is to get to market with an equivalent or slightly better product very quickly once someone else opens up the market, rather than to be first to market with new products or technologies.
Sometimes called an imitator or a “fast follower.”

分析者:采用模仿创新策略的公司,其目标是,对手产品一旦打开市场,他们就迅速向市场投放相似的或更好的产品,而不第一个推出新产品或新 技术。他们往往被称为模仿者或“快速跟随者”。

 

Applications Development / 应用开发

Applications Development: The iterative process through which software is designed and written to meet the needs and requirements of the user base or the process of enhancing or developing new products.

应用开发:为满足用户需求而不断设计和编写软件的过程,即改进和开发新产品的流程。
 
Architectural innovation / 架构创新

Architectural innovation: Combines technological and business disruptions. A well-quoted example is digital photography, which caused significant disruption for companies such as Kodak and Polaroid.

架构创新:结合技术和业务破坏。 一个引用很好的例子是数字摄影,这对柯达和宝丽来公司造成了严重影响。

 

Attribute Testing / 属性测试

Attribute Testing: A quantitative market research technique in which respondents are asked to rate a detailed list of product or category attributes on one or more types of scales such as relative importance, current performance, current satisfaction with a particular product or service, for the purpose of ascertaining customer preferences for some attributes over others, to help guide the design and development process. Great care and rigor should be taken in the development of the list of attributes, and it must be neither too long for the respondent to answer comfortably or too short such that it lumps too many ideas together at too high a level.

属性测试:一项定量市场研究方法,受访者就产品属性打分排序,如相对重要性、当前性能、对某产品或服务的满意度等,其目的是明确客户对产品属性的喜好,以指导设计和开发流程。在设计产品属性问卷时,必须格外小心,受访者回答问题时间不宜太长或太短,太长导致被访者不舒适,太短导致人们仓促归纳意见。

 

Audit / 审计

Audit: When applied to new product development, an audit is an appraisal of the effectiveness of the processes by which the new product was developed and brought to market.

审计:新产品开发流程中,针对新产品开发和市场发布流程的有效性评价。(参见 PDMA 工具书 1 第十四章)
 
Augmented Product / 延伸产品

Augmented Product: The Core Product, plus all other sources of product benefits, such as service, warranty, and image.

延伸产品 : 核心产品,可创造产品收益的其他因素,如服务、保修和形象等。

 

Autonomous Team / 自主型团队

Autonomous Team: A completely self-sufficient project team with very little, if any, link to the funding organization. Frequently used as an organizational model to bring a radical innovation to the marketplace. Sometimes called a “tiger” team.

自主型团队:一个自给自足的项目团队,很少与基金组织有关联。往往对市场进行突破型创新。有时称作“老虎”团队。

 

Awareness / 知名度

Awareness: A measure of the percent of target customers who are aware that the new product exists. Awareness is variously defined, including recall of brand, recognition of brand, recall of key features or positioning.

知名度:在目标客户群中,了解某新产品的客户比例。知名度的定义很广泛,包括品牌印象、品牌识别和对关键特征或定位的了解。

 

Balanced portfolio / 平衡组合

Balanced portfolio: a collection of projects where the proportion of projects in specific categories is directed according to strategic priorities.

平衡组合:一组项目,其中特定类别的项目比例根据战略优先顺序排列。
 
Benchmarking / 基准化分析法

Benchmarking: A process of collecting process performance data, generally in a confidential, blinded fashion, from a number of organizations to allow them to assess their performance individually and as a whole.

基准化分析法:从不同组织收集进程绩效用以评价个体绩效或整体绩效的过程。

 

Benefit / 利益

Benefit: A product attribute expressed in terms of what the user gets from the product rather than its physical characteristics or features. Benefits are often paired with specific features, but they need not be.

利益:产品的属性通过产品的使用价值体现出来,而不通过产品的物理特征或特性。效益经常与产品特性相关联,但并不是绝对。

 

Best Practice / 最佳实践

Best Practice: Methods, tools or techniques that are associated with improved performance. In new product development, no one tool or technique assures success; however, a number of them are associated with higher probabilities of achieving success. Best practices likely are at least somewhat context specific. Sometimes called “effective practice.”

最佳实践:应用方法、工具或技术用来提高绩效的活动。在新产品开发中,不能只用一种工具或技术来确保成功,而应综合系列方法以增加成功几 率。最佳实践方法还要依环境而定,有时被称为“有效实践”。

 

Best Practice Study / 最佳实践研究

Best Practice Study: A process of studying successful organizations and selecting the best of their actions or processes for emulation.
 
In new product development it means finding the best process practices, adapting them and adopting them for internal use. (See Chapter 36 in the    PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition, Chapter 33 in    The PDMA HandBook, Griffin, “PDMA Research on New Product Development Practices: Updating Trends and Benchmarking Best Practices,”        JPIM, 14:6, 429-458, November, 1997, and “Drivers of NPD Success: The 1997 PDMA Report,” PDMA, October, 1997)

最佳实践研究:对成功机构进行分析、效仿的最佳实践法。在新产品的开发中, 这意味着寻找并调整最佳的过程实践法来加以利用。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第三十六章,PDMA 新产品开发手册第三十三章,Griffin, “基于新产品开发实践的新产品开发研究:日益更新的趋势和基准化分析最佳实
践”“JPIM, 14:6,429—458,11 月,1997,新产品开发成功的驱动者:
1997PDMA 报告”PDMA,10 月,1997)

 

Beta Testing / 贝塔测试

Beta Testing: A more extensive test than the Alpha, performed by real users and customers. The purpose of Beta testing is to determine how the product performs in an actual user environment. It is critical that real customers perform this evaluation, not the firm developing the product or a contracted testing company. As with the Alpha test, results of the Beta Test should be carefully evaluated with an eye toward any needed modifications or corrections.

贝塔测试:与阿尔法测试相比,是测试维度更为广泛的一种测试方法,由实际使用者和消费者来施行。其目的是判断在实际使用环境中产品的性能如何。其关键是,该项测试应由实际消费者来完成,而不是由公司开发团队或外包测试公司来完成。同阿尔法测试一样,必须认真对待贝塔测试的结果,从而找出产品所需的任何修正。

 

Big data / 大数据

Big data: extremely large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions.

大数据:可以通过计算分析以显示模式,趋势和关联,特别是与人类行为和交互相关的极大数据集。
 
Bottom up portfolio selection / 自下而上的产品组合筛选

Bottom up portfolio selection: starts first with a list of individual projects and through a process of strict project evaluation and screening ends up with a portfolio of strategically aligned projects.

自下而上的产品组合筛选:首先从单个项目列表开始,通过严格的项目评估和筛选过程,结束一系列策略性项目。

 

Brainstorming / 头脑风暴法

Brainstorming: A group method of creative problem-solving frequently used in product concept generation. There are many modifications in format, each variation with its own name. The basis of all of these methods uses a group of people to creatively generate a list of ideas related to a particular topic. As many ideas as possible are listed before any critical evaluation is performed. (See Chapters 16 and 17 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

头脑风暴法:经常在新产品概念生成阶段应用的创造性解决问题的多种方法。方法形式各异,各有称谓。共同点是让人们在决定性评估前提出尽可 能多的创意。(参见 PDMA 指导手册第 12 和 13 章)

 

Brand / 品牌

Brand: A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is    trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller.

品牌:使生产商或服务商区别于他人的名称、称呼、设计、符号或其他任何特征。品牌的合法形式是商标。品牌可以代表一种、一系列或一个生产商的所有产品。
 
Break-even Point / 盈亏平衡点

Break-even Point: The point in the commercial life of a product when cumulative development costs are recovered through accrued profits from sales.

盈亏平衡点:在产品商业周期中,累计开发成本和销售利润的交叉点。

 

Break-even Point / 盈亏平衡点

Break-even Point: The point in the commercial life of a product when cumulative development costs are recovered through accrued profits from sales.

盈亏平衡点:在产品商业周期中,累计开发成本和销售利润的交叉点。

 

Breakthrough projects / 突破性项目

Breakthrough projects (sometimes referred to as radical or disruptive). These projects strive to bring a new product to the market with new technologies; depart significantly from existing organizational practices; and have a high level of risk.

突破性项目(有时被称为激进或破坏性项目)。 这些项目致力于用新技术将新产品推向市场; 明显偏离现有的组织惯例; 并具有高水平的风险。

 

Business Analysis / 商业分析

Business Analysis: An analysis of the business situation surrounding a proposed project. Usually includes financial forecasts in terms of discounted cash flows, net present values or internal rates of returns.

商业分析:对某项目的商业环境分析,通常包括折现现金流、净现值或内部收益率的财务预测。
 


Business Case / 商业案例

Business Case: The results of the market, technical and financial analyses, or up-front homework. Ideally defined just prior to the “go to development” decision (gate), the case defines the product and project, including the project justification and the action or business plan. (See Chapter 21 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

商业案例:市场技术和财务分析的结果,理论上应在“开发”决策之前执行。它具体定义了产品和项目,包括项目合理性,行动或商业计划。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 21 章)

 

Business-to-Business / 企业对企业模式

Business-to-Business: Transactions with non-consumer purchasers such as manufacturers, resellers (distributors, wholesalers, jobbers and retailers, for example) institutional, professional and governmental organizations. Frequently referred to as “industrial” businesses in the past.

企业对企业模式:与非消费者,如制造商、销售商(分销商、批发商、临时商和零售商)、专业或政府组织发生的商业关系。过去常常指工业企业 。

 

Buyer / 买方

Buyer: The purchaser of a product, whether or not he or she will be the ultimate user. Especially in business-to-business markets, a purchasing agent may contract for the actual purchase of a good or service, yet never benefit from the function(s) purchased.

买方:产品的购买者,但不一定是最终消费者。尤其是在企业对企业模式市场, 购买机构可能签订实际购买产品或服务的合同,但并不使用购买的 产品或服务。
 
Cannibalization / 抢食效应

Cannibalization:    That portion of the demand for a new product that comes from the erosion of the demand for (sales of) a current product the firm markets. (See Chapter 34 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

抢食效应:因放弃现有产品而转向新产品的需求比重。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 34 章)

 

Capacity Planning / 能力规划

Capacity Planning: A forward-looking activity that monitors the skill sets and effective resource capacity of the organization. For product development, the objective is to manage the flow of projects through development such that none of the functions (skill sets) creates a bottleneck to timely completion. Necessary in optimizing the project portfolio.

能力规划:监督组织技术行为和有效资源容量的前瞻性活动。新产品开发目的是确保新产品开发流程中所有技术不会成为阻碍项目顺利完成的瓶颈。这对于优化项目组合是必要的。

 

Carbon credits / 碳信用

Carbon credits:    By a simple Cost of Goods calculation the indirect cost from Externalities (effects of a product or service on other people than the producer and user) are not reflected. This can be CO2, but also social impact. Integrating all externalities in your (shadow) price gives the “Real Price”.

碳信用:通过简单的货物成本计算,外部因素的间接成本(产品或服务对生产者和用户以外的其他人的影响)没有反映。 这可以是二氧化碳,但也有社会影响。 在你的(阴影)价格中整合所有外部性给出了“实际价格”。
 
Cash cows / 现金牛

Cash cows: products that have a high share of a market which has low overall growth

现金牛:在整体增长较低的市场中占有较高份额的产品

 

Centers of Excellence / 卓越中心

Centers of Excellence: A geographic or organizational group with an acknowledged technical, business, or competitive competency.

卓越中心:在同一地域范围内的团队,他们有公认的技术、商业或竞争优势。

 

Certification / 认证

Certification: A process for formally acknowledging that someone has mastered a body of knowledge on a subject. In new product development, the PDMA has created and manages a certification process to become a New Product Development Professional (NPDP).

认证:正式确认某人已经掌握某种知识体系。在新产品开发中,PDMA 创造并管理着新产品开发专业(NPDP)的认证流程。

 

Champion / 拥护者

Champion: A person who takes a passionate interest in seeing that a particular process or product is fully developed and marketed. This informal role varies from situations calling for little more than stimulating awareness of the opportunity to extreme cases where the champion tries to force a project past the strongly entrenched internal resistance of company policy or that of objecting parties. (see Chapter 5 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1st Edition.)
 
拥护者:热切渴望某一过程或产品得到开发并投放市场的人。他们的角色是激发人们抓住机遇的意识,使受到公司政策限制和或遭到反对的项目得以进行。(参加 PDMA 工具书 1 第 5 章)

 

Charter / 章程

Charter: A project team document defining the context, specific details, and plans of a project. It includes the initial business case, problem and goal statements, constraints and assumptions, and preliminary plan and scope. Periodic reviews with the sponsor ensure alignment with business strategies. (see also Product Innovation Charter)

章程:用来定义项目背景,具体细节和计划的项目团队文件,包括初始商业案 例、问题与目标陈述,限制、假设以及主要计划和远景。开发商的定 期复查可确保开发活动与经营战略相吻合。(参加“产品创新”章节)

 

Checklist / 审核清单

Checklist: A list of items used to remind an analyst to think of all relevant aspects. It finds frequent use as a tool of creativity in concept generation, as a factor consideration list in concept screening, and to ensure that all appropriate tasks have been completed in any stage of the product development process.

审核清单:用以提醒考虑相关方面、要求或指标的清单。常被用于概念创新阶段,以保证所有合理任务在产品开发阶段完成。

 

Circular economy /  循环经济

Circular economy: an economy that is restorative and regenerative by design, and which aims to keep products, components and materials at their highest utility and value at all times, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles.

循环经济:通过设计恢复和再生的经济,旨在使产品,部件和材料始终保持最高的效用和价值,区分技术和生物循环。
 


Cluster sampling / 聚类抽样

Cluster sampling: the population is divided into clusters and a sample of clusters is taken.

聚类抽样:将群体分为聚类,并采集聚类样本。

 

Collaborative Product Development / 协同产品开发

Collaborative Product Development: When two firms work together to develop and commercialize a specialized product.

协同产品开发:两个公司共同开发某一产品并将其推向市场的过程。
小公司可以提供技术或创造性的知识,大公司可以提供资金,市场和分销渠 道。两个规模相当的公司合作,他们分别可以提供一些专门技术来共同开发某些高复杂性的产品或系统。协同产品开发有很多形式。
在客户协同方面,供应商可以接触到合伙人提供的关键客户。在供应商合作方面,公司合伙人和技术组件服务提供者一起创造整合型解决方法。在合作生产中,公司和生产合伙人一起协同生产目标产品。协同开发依合作的深度而不 同,他们在为目标消费者提供最终方案的过程中是联系在一起。

 

Co-location / 人员共置

Co-location: Physically locating project personnel in one area, enabling more rapid and frequent decision-making and communication among them.

人员共置:将项目人员集中在同一地区,以此保证他们能够做出快速决策和进行更为频繁的沟通。

 

Commercialization / 商业化

Commercialization: The process of taking a new product from development to market. It generally includes production launch and
 
ramp-up, marketing materials and program development, supply chain development, sales channel development, training development, training, and service and support development. (See Chapter 30
of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

商业化:新产品从开发到推向市场的过程。通常包括产品启动和发展、营销材料和项目开发、供应链开发、销售渠道开发、培训、服务和支撑体系发展。

 

Competitive Intelligence / 竞争智慧

Competitive Intelligence: Methods and activities for transforming disaggregated public competitor information into relevant and strategic knowledge about competitors’ position, size, efforts and trends. The term refers to the broad practice of collecting, analyzing, and communicating the best available information on competitive trends occurring outside one’s own company.

竞争智慧:一些方法或作法,将分散的竞争者信息整合成竞争者的定位、规模、能力和趋势等战略性知识,指收集和分析公司外部产品趋势发展信息的广泛实践。

 

Concept / 概念

Concept: A clearly written and possibly visual description of the new product idea that includes its primary features and consumer benefits, combined with a broad understanding of the technology needed.

概念:对于新产品形象的文字描述,包括主要特征、可为消费者带来的利益、对所采用技术的深刻理解。

 

Concept Generation / 概念生成

Concept Generation: The processes by which new concepts, or product ideas, are generated. Sometimes also called idea generation or ideation. (See Chapters 15 and 17 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
 
概念生成:产生新概念或产品创意的过程。有时也叫做创意生成或创意构思。
(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第 12,13 章)

 

Concept Screening / 概念筛选

Concept Screening: The evaluation of potential new product concepts during the discovery phase of a product development project.
Potential concepts are evaluated for their fit with business strategy, technical feasibility, manufacturability, and potential for financial success.

概念筛选:在产品开发项目的发现阶段评估潜在的新产品概念。 评估潜在概念是否适应业务战略,技术可行性,可制造性和财务成功的可能性。

 

Concept Statement / 概念说明

Concept Statement: A verbal or pictorial statement of a concept that is prepared for presentation to consumers to get their reaction prior to development.

概念说明:在开发之前,为获得消费者的反馈,向消费者展示的针对概念的文字性描述或图示说明。

 

Concept Testing / 概念测试

Concept Testing: The process by which a concept statement is presented to consumers for their reactions. These reactions can either be used to permit the developer to estimate the sales value of the concept or to make changes to the concept to enhance its potential sales value. (See Chapter 6 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition)

概念测试:向消费者展示概念产品以观察他们的反馈。这些反馈可以用来帮助开发者评估概念的销售价值并做出相应调整。(参加 PDMA 指导手册 第 14,15 章)
 
Concurrent Engineering / 并行工程

Concurrent Engineering (CE): When product design and manufacturing process development occur concurrently in an integrated fashion, using a cross-functional team, rather than sequentially by separate functions. CE is intended to cause the development team to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, and maintenance, from the project’s outset. Also called simultaneous engineering. (See Chapter
30 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

并行工程:在产品的设计和制造流程中,跨职能团队采用并行整合模式进行工作,不是按各个功能的顺序依次进行,从而促使团队全面考虑产品生命周期中从概念到实施的全部元素,包括质量、成本、维护等方面。也称作同步工程。
(参考《PDMA 新产品开发手册》第 1 版第 30 章)

 

Conjoint Analysis / 联合分析

Conjoint Analysis: Conjoint analysis is a market research technique in which respondents are systematically presented with a rotating set of product descriptions, each of which contains a rotating set of attributes and levels of those attributes. By asking respondents to choose their preferred product and/or to indicate their degree of preference from within each set of options, conjoint analysis can determine the relative contribution to overall preference of each variable and each level. The two key advantages of conjoint analysis over other methods of determining importance are: 1) the variables and levels can be either continuous (e.g. weight) or discreet (e.g. color), and 2) it is just about the only valid market research method for evaluating the role of price, i.e. how much someone would pay for a given feature (See Chapter 18 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

联合分析:联合分析是一种市场调研方法,它包含反馈者关于产品的系统描述, 包括一系列属性和属性的实现程度。要求反馈者选择他们更喜欢的 产品或明确他们的偏好,经综合分析之后可判断每个变量在多大程度上对产品整体做出贡献。与其他方法相比,联合分析的两大优点是:1 变量和 程度可以是连续的(如权重)或具体的(如颜色);2 它是评价价格作用的唯一有效的市场调研方法,如对于产品某一具体特性,人们要支付多少价格。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 18 章)
 
Consumer / 消费者

Consumer: The most generic and all-encompassing term for a firm’s targets. The term is used in either the business-to-business or household context and may refer to the firm’s current customers, competitors’ customers, or current non-purchasers with similar needs or demographic characteristics. The term does not differentiate between whether the person is a buyer or a user target. Only a fraction of consumers will become customers.

消费者:能囊括公司目标的一般性术语。通常用于企业对企业模式或公司内部, 包括公司现有客户,竞争者的客户,现有具备相同需求或人口特征的非购买  者。它没有明显的购买者和使用者之分,仅一小部分消费者会成为客户。

 

Consumer Need / 消费者需求

Consumer Need: A problem the consumer would like to have solved. What a consumer would like a product to do for them.

消费者需求:消费者希望解决的问题,这是消费者购买此产品的意图。

 

Consumer Panels / 消费者样本

Consumer Panels: groups of consumers in specific sectors, recruited by research companies and agencies,    who are used as respondents to answer specific research questions relating to product testing, taste testing, or other areas. Most often.        they are    a specialist panel who    take part    in    numerous projects. Consumer panels are particularly useful for short, quick surveys, where the emphasis is on a sample of those with specialist knowledge rather than a representative sample of the general population

消费者样本:是由市场研究公司和机构招募的特别挑选出的消费者群体,他们需要回答诸如产品测试,口味测试或其他领域的具体研究问题。 通常他们是一个参与众多项目的专家小组。 消费者样本对于简短,快速的调查特别有用,其重点是具有专业知识的样本,而不是一般人群的代表样本。
 
Contingency Plan / 应急计划

Contingency Plan: A plan to cope with events whose occurrence, timing and severity cannot be predicted.

应急计划:用于应对不可预期事件、其发生时间和严重程度的处理计划。

 


Continuous Improvement / 持续改善

Continuous Improvement: The review, analysis and rework directed at incrementally improving practices and processes. Also called Kaizen.

持续改善:为了不断改善实践流程而反复进行的总结、分析和工作。也称为凯恩泽。

 

Continuous Innovation / 持续创新

Continuous Innovation: A product alteration that allows improved performance and benefits without changing either consumption patterns or behavior. The product’s general appearance and basic performance do not functionally change. Examples include fluoride toothpaste and higher computer speeds.

持续创新:不改变消费类型或行为而进行的产品性能改善。产品的整体外观和基本性能没有功能上的改变,如有氟化物的牙膏和高速计算机。

 

Convergent Thinking / 聚合思维

Convergent Thinking: A technique generally performed late in the initial phase of idea generation to help funnel the high volume of ideas created through divergent thinking into a small group or single idea on which more effort and analysis will be focused.

聚合思维:在创意生成阶段将大量的分歧性创意汇聚成数目较少的或唯一的创意,之后的工作和分析将聚焦于这些创意。
 


Cooperation / 合作

Cooperation (Team Cooperation): The extent to which team members actively work together in reaching team level objectives.

合作(团队合作):团队成员之间为实现团队目标而合作的程度。

 

Core Benefit Proposition / 核心利益主张

Core Benefit Proposition (CBP): The central benefit or purpose for which a consumer buys a product. The CBP may come either from the physical good or service, or it may come from augmented dimensions of the product. (see also Value Proposition) (See Chapter 3 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1st Edition.)

核心利益主张:消费者购买产品的主要用途。核心利益主张可来自有形产品或服务,也可来自延伸的产品领域。参见价值主张。(参见 PDMA 工具 书 1 第 3 章)

 

Core Competence / 核心竞争力

Core Competence: That capability at which a company does better than other firms, which provides them with a distinctive competitive advantage and contributes to acquiring and retaining customers.
Something that a firm does better than other firms. The purest definition adds “and is also the lowest cost provider.”

核心竞争力:公司优于竞争对手的能力,包括技术、组织、供应链、运营财务、市场、合作伙伴关系和其他的能力,它可以提供竞争优势并吸引和 保持消费者群体。最纯粹的定义涵盖了“最低成本供应者”。
 
Corporate Culture / 公司文化

Corporate Culture: The “feel” of an organization. Culture arises from the belief system through which an organization operates.
Corporate cultures are variously described as being authoritative, bureaucratic, and entrepreneurial. The firm’s culture frequently impacts the organizational appropriateness for getting things done.

公司文化:组织“感觉”。文化来自组织赖以运行的信仰系统。公司文化可以有不同的描述:权威性、组织性和企业性。公司文化往往能影响组织的  行事效果。

 

Corporate strategy / 公司战略

Corporate strategy: The overarching strategy of a diversified organization. It answers the questions of “in which businesses should we compete?” and “how does bringing in these businesses create synergy and /or add to the competitive advantage of the organization as a whole?”

公司战略:一个多元化组织的总体战略。 它回答了“我们应该在哪些业务中竞争”的问题,以及“如何带来这些业务创造协同效应和/或增加整个组织的竞争优势?

 

Creativity / 创造性

Creativity: “An arbitrary harmony, an expected astonishment, a habitual revelation, a familiar surprise, a generous selfishness, an unexpected certainty, a formable stubbornness, a vital triviality, a disciplined freedom, an intoxicating steadiness, a repeated initiation, a difficult delight, a predictable gamble, an ephemeral solidity, a unifying difference, a demanding satisfier, a miraculous expectation, and accustomed amazement.” (George M. Prince,    The Practice of Creativity, 1970) Creativity is the ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate.

创造性:“一种果断的和谐,一个预期的惊讶,一项习惯的新发现,一个熟悉的惊喜,一种慷慨的自私,一个预料之外的肯定,一种形式上的顽强 ,一件重要
 
的琐事,一种有节制的自由,一个令人兴奋的进步,一个重复的开始,一份辛苦的喜悦,一场可预测的赌注,一个短暂的稳固,一种一 致上的差异,一个渴望的满足者,一种奇迹的渴望以及习惯性的惊异。”(乔治 M.普林斯, 《创造性》, 1970)。 创造性是一种从事创新性工作的能力。

 

Criteria / 标准

Criteria: Statements of standards used by decision-makers at decision gates. The dimensions of performance necessary to achieve or surpass for product development projects to continue in development. In the aggregate, these criteria reflect a business unit’s new product strategy. (See Chapters 21 and 29 of    The PDMA ToolBook 2nd Edition.)

标准: 在决策关口,决策者对标准做出的陈述,即以保证项目继续进行而必须达到或超过的绩效。总体来说,标准反映了一个业务单元的新产品战略。(参加《PDMA 新产品开发手册》第 2 版第 21 章和第 29 章)

 

Critical Path / 关键路径

Critical Path: The set of interrelated activities that must be completed for the project to be finished successfully can be mapped into a chart showing how long each task takes, and which tasks cannot be started before which other tasks are completed. The critical path is the set of linkages through the chart that is the longest. It determines how long a project will take.

关键路径:为成功完成项目而进行的一系列相关活动,能将它们的完成时间以及完成任务的先后关系罗列出来。关键路径显示最长的路径,决定完成项目所需要的时间。

 

Critical Path Scheduling / 关键路径进度计划

Critical Path Scheduling: A project management technique, frequently incorporated into various software programs, which puts all important steps of a given new product project into a sequential network based on task interdependencies.
 
关键路径进度计划:一种项目控制技术,通常需要使用各种软件工具,它可以在识别各个任务的基础上,将所有新产品开发中的关键步骤连接成一 个连续网络。

 

Critical Success Factors / 关键成功因素

Critical Success Factors: Those critical few factors that are necessary for, but don’t guarantee, commercial success. (See Chapter 1 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

关键成功因素:商业成功的必要因素,但仅拥有这些因素未必能够成功。

 

Cross-Functional Team / 跨职能团队

Cross-Functional Team: A team consisting of representatives from the various functions involved in product development, usually including members from all key functions required to deliver a successful product, typically including marketing, engineering, manufacturing/operations, finance, purchasing, customer support, and quality. The team is empowered by the departments to represent each function’s perspective in the development process. (See Chapters 9 and 10 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition    and Chapter 6 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

跨职能团队:拥有不同职能领域代表的产品开发团队,这些职能领域通常涵盖生产成功产品的所有关键职能,一般包括营销、工程、制造、运营、财务、销  售、客户支持和质量等职能领域。团队可保证在开发过程中兼顾所有的职能。
(见 PDMA 指导手册第 9 章和 PDMA 工具书第 6 章)

 

Crossing the Chasm / 跨越鸿沟

Crossing the Chasm: Making the transition to a mainstream market from an early market dominated by a few visionary customers (sometimes also called innovators or lead adopters). This concept typically applies to the adoption of new, market creating technology-based products and services.
 
跨越鸿沟:从最初消费者(通常称为革新者或领先消费者)所支配的市场转向主流市场的过程。这个概念应用于开拓市场的以技术为基础的新产品或服务过程
中。

Crowdsourcing / 众包

Crowdsourcing: described as a collection of tools for obtaining information or input into a particular task or project by enlisting the services of a number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the Internet

众包:被描述为用于获得信息或输入到特定任务或项目的工具的集合,通过获取许多人的服务(有偿或无偿),通常通过因特网

 

Culture / 文化

Culture: is defined as the shared beliefs, core values, assumptions, and expectations of people in the organization.

文化:被定义为组织中人们的共同信念,核心价值观,假设和期望。

 

Customer / 客户

Customer: One who purchases or uses your firm’s products or services.

客户:购买或使用产品或服务的人。

 

Customer Needs /  客户需求

Customer Needs: Problems to be solved. These needs, either expressed or yet-to-be articulated, provide new product development opportunities for the firm. (See Chapter 14 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
 
客户需求:需要解决的问题。无论已提及的需求还是即将表达出来的需要,都可为公司提供新产品开发机遇。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版 第 14 章)

Customer Site Visits / 客户现场访问

Customer Site Visits: A qualitative market research technique for uncovering customer needs. The method involves going to a customer’s work site, watching as a person performs functions associated with the customer needs your firm wants to solve, and then debriefing that person about what they did, why they did those things, the problems encountered as they were trying to perform the function, and what worked well. (See Chapters 15 and 16 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

客户现场访问:一种揭示客户需求的变量市场调研方法。它要求到客户工作现场观察客户如何用产品解决问题以实现产品功能,他们要做什么,为 什么这么做,客户遇到的问题是如何解决的,如何做得更好。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 15,16 章)

 

Cycle Time / 周期

Cycle Time: The length of time for any operation, from start to completion. In the new product development sense, it is the length of time to develop a new product from an early initial idea for a new product to initial market sales. Precise definitions of the start and end point vary from one company to another, and may vary from one project to another within the company. (See Chapter 12 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

周期:从开始到结束的运行时间。从新产品开发角度来讲,它是指从最初创意产生到新产品上市销售的时间。不同的公司,或同一公司的不同项目的起始定义时间都会有所不同。

 

Dashboard / 仪表板

Dashboard:    A typically colored graphical presentation of a project’s status or a portfolio’s status by project resembling a vehicle’s dashboard. Typically, red is used to flag urgent problems,
 
yellow to flag impending problems, and green to signal on projects on track.

仪表板:显示项目情况或组合情况的典型彩色图表,类似于汽车的仪表盘。通常红色标注亟待解决的问题,黄色比表示迫近的问题,绿色表示项目正在进行。

 

Data / 数据

Data: Measurements taken at the source of a business process. 数据:以业务流程为来源的测量。


Database / 数据库

Database: An electronic gathering of information organized in some way to make it easy to search, discover, analyze, and manipulate.

数据库:对信息的电子化搜集和整理,方便对数据的查找、发现、分析和应用。

 

Decision Tree / 决策树

Decision Tree: A diagram used for making decisions in business or computer programming. The “branches” of the tree diagram represent choices with associated risk s, costs, results, and outcome probabilities. By calculating outcomes (profits) for each of the branches, the best decision for the firm can be determined.

决策树:用于业务决策或计算机程序决策的图表。“树的分支”代表对风险、成本、可能结果的选择。通过计算每个分支的利润,作出最佳决策。

 

Decline Stage / 衰退阶段

Decline Stage: The fourth and last stage of the product life cycle. Entry into this stage is generally caused by technology advancements,
 
consumer or user preference changes, global competition or environmental or regulatory changes. (See Chapter 34 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

衰退阶段:产品生命周期中的第四个或最后一个阶段。这一阶段受到技术的进步、消费者或使用者的偏好变化、全球竞争加剧、环境或规则变化带来 的影响。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 34 章)

Defenders / 捍卫者

Defenders: Firms that stake out a product turf and protect it by whatever means, not necessarily through developing new products.

捍卫者:采用各种可能手段维护其市场地位(而不仅仅通过开发新产品)的公司。

 

Deliverable / 可交付成果

Deliverable: The output (such as test reports, regulatory approvals, working prototypes or marketing research reports) that shows a project has achieved a result. Deliverables may be specified for the commercial launch of the product or at the end of a development stage.

可交付成果:表明项目达到某种结果的输出(如测试报告、调整的批准、产品原型或市场调研报告)。可交付成果依据产品的商业投入或开发阶段的不同而有差异。

Delphi Processes / 德菲法

Delphi Processes: A technique that uses iterative rounds of consensus development across a group of experts to arrive at a forecast of the most probable outcome for some future state.

德菲法:在一组专家内部采用的重复打分法,据此得出对未来情况的相对可靠的预测。

Demographic / 人口统计学

Demographic: The statistical description of a human population. Characteristics included in the description may include gender, age,
 
education level, and marital status, as well as various behavioral and psychological characteristics.

人口统计学:人口数量的统计性描述。描述的特征包括性别、年龄、受教育程度、婚姻状况以及不同的行为或心理特征。

 

Derivative projects / 衍生项目

Derivative projects: spin-offs from other existing products or platforms. They may fill a gap in an existing product line; offer more cost-competitive manufacturing; or offer enhancements and features based on core organization technology. Generally, they are relatively low risk

衍生项目:从其他现有产品或平台衍生出来的。 他们可能填补现有产品线的空白; 提供更具成本竞争力的制造; 或提供基于核心组织技术的增强功能。 一般来说,他们的风险相对较低

Design for Excellence / 面向卓越的设计

Design for Excellence (DFX): The systematic consideration of ALL relevant life cycle factors, such as manufacturability, reliability, maintainability, affordability, testability, etc., in the design and development process.

面向卓越的设计:在设计和开发流程中,系统考虑所有与生命周期有关因素的设计。这些因素包括可制造性、可靠性、可维护性、可供应性和可测 试性。

Design for Maintainability / 维护性设计

Design for Maintainability (DFMt): The systematic consideration of maintainability issues over the product’s projected life cycle in the design and development process.

维护性设计:在设计和开发流程中,系统地考虑维护性。
 
Design for Manufacturability / 制造性设计

Design for Manufacturability (DFM): The systematic consideration of manufacturing issues in the design and development process, facilitating the fabrication of the product’s components and their assembly into the overall product.

制造性设计:在设计和开发流程中,系统地考虑制造性,有助于所需组件整合为整体产品。

 

Design for six sigma / 六西格玛的设计

Design for six sigma: the aim of DFSS is to create designs that are resource efficient, capable of exceptionally high yields, and are robust to process variations

六西格玛的设计:DFSS 的目标是创建资源效率高,能够获得极高产量的设计, 并且对于工艺变化

 

Design for the Environment / 面向环境的设计

Design for the Environment (DFE): The systematic consideration of environmental safety and health issues over the product’s projected life cycle in the design and development process.

面向环境的设计:在产品生命周期的设计和开发流程中,系统考虑环境安全或健康问题。

 

Design specifications / 设计规范

Design specifications: where the concept statement provides a qualitative presentation of the product concept’s benefits and features, the product design specifications provide the quantitative basis for further design and manufacture.
 
设计规范:概念声明提供了产品概念的优点和特点的定性表述,产品设计规范为进一步设计和制造提供了定量基础。

 

Design thinking / 设计思维

Design thinking: a creative solving approach – or more completely, a systematic and collaborative approach to identify and creatively solve problems”

设计思维:创造性解决方法 – 或更完全地,一种系统和协作的方法来识别和创造性地解决问题“

 

Design Validation / 设计有效性

Design Validation: Product tests to ensure that the product or service conforms to defined user needs and requirements. These may be performed on working prototypes or using computer simulations of the finished product.

设计有效性:进行产品测试以保证产品或服务满足消费者需求。这可以用产品原型或计算机模拟成品方法完成。

 

Development / 开发

Development: The functional part of the organization responsible for converting product requirements into a working product. Also, a phrase in the overall concept to market cycle where the new product or service is developed for the first time.

开发:负责把产品需求转变为实际产品的功能性部门。它也是将整体的市场概念首次转化成市场上新产品或服务的阶段。
 
Development Teams / 开发团队

Development Teams: teams formed to take one or more new products from concept through development, testing and launch.

开发团队:通过设计、开发、测试和发布流程形成一个或多个新产品而组成的团队。

 

Discontinuous Innovation / 非连续性创新

Discontinuous Innovation: Previously unknown products that establish new consumption patterns and behavior changes. Examples include microwave ovens and the cellular phones.

非连续性创新:之前所不知道的能够产生新消费结构和行为变化的产品,如微波炉和蜂窝电话。

 

Discounted Cash-Flow (DCF) Analysis / 贴现率现金流分析

Discounted Cash-Flow (DCF) Analysis: One method for providing an estimate of the current value of future incomes and expenses projected for a project. Future cash flows for a number of years are estimated for the project, and then discounted back to the present using forecast interest rates.

贴现率现金流分析:评估未来收入和支出的现金价值的评价方法。利用预测的利率将未来现金流折合成当前资金数。

 

Dispersed Teams / 分散式团队

Dispersed Teams: Product development teams that have members working at different locations, across time zones, and perhaps even in different countries.

分散式团队:不同成员在不同地点、时区,甚至不同国家工作的产品开发团队。
 


Disruptive innovation / 颠覆性创新

Disruptive innovation:Requires a new business model but not necessarily new technology. So, for example, Google’s Android operating system potentially disrupts companies like Apple

颠覆性创新:需要一个新的商业模式,但不一定是新技术。 因此,例如,
Google 的 Android 操作系统可能会破坏像苹果这样的公司

 

Distribution / 分销

Distribution (physical and channels): The method and partners used to get the product (or service) from where it is produced to where the end user can buy it.

分销:将产品或服务从生产地运送到最终使用者购买地的方法和模式。

 

Divergent Thinking / 发散式思维

Divergent Thinking: Technique performed early in the initial phase of idea generation that expands thinking processes to generate, record and recall a high volume of new or interesting ideas.

发散式思维:在创意生成的初始阶段使用的方法,它通过思维发散来设计,记录和回顾大量新的或有趣的创意。

 

Early Adopters / 早期接受者

Early Adopters: For new products, these are customers who, relying on their own intuition and vision, buy into new product concepts very early in the life cycle. For new processes, these are organizational entities that were willing to try out new processes rather than just maintaining the old.
 
早期接受者:在新产品生命周期的早期就依据自己的决策而购买产品的客户。对于新流程,是指愿意尝试新流程而不是死守旧流程的组织实体。

 

Enhanced New Product / 增强型新产品

Enhanced New Product: A form of derivative product. Enhanced products include additional features not previously found on the base platform, which provide increased value to consumers.

增强型新产品:派生产品的一种。增强型产品包括建立在平台基础上的可以为客户增加价值的附加特征。

 

Entrepreneur / 企业家

Entrepreneur: A person who initiates, organizes, operates, assumes the risk and reaps the potential reward for a new business venture.

企业家:开创,组织,运行,承担风险并从新的商业风险中获得潜在收益的人。

 

Ethnography / 人种学

Ethnography: A descriptive, qualitative market research methodology for studying the customer in relation to his or her environment.
Researchers spend time in the field observing customers and their environment to acquire a deep understanding of the lifestyles or cultures as a basis for better understanding their needs and problems. (See Customer Site Visits and Chapter 15 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

人种学:研究客户及其相关环境的描述性、定性市场调研方法。研究者在现场观察客户和环境以获得对他们的生活方式或文化环境的深刻理解,从 而更好理解他们的需求和问题。(参见客户现场访问,及 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 15 章)
 
Factor analysis / 因子分析

Factor analysis: a process in which the values of observed data are expressed as functions of a number of possible causes in order to find which are the most important.

因子分析:一个过程,其中观察数据的值表示为多个可能原因的函数,以找出哪些是最重要的。

 

Factory Cost / 制造成本

Factory Cost: The cost of producing the product in the production location including materials, labor and overhead.

制造成本:在生产地生产产品的成本,包括所需的材料成本、劳动力成本等。

 

Failure Rate / 失败率

Failure Rate: The percentage of a firm’s new products that make it to full market commercialization, but which fail to achieve the objectives set for them.

失败率:公司新产品上市但未能达到预订目标的产品比率。

 

Feasibility analysis / 可行性分析

Feasibility analysis: the process of analyzing the likely success of a project or a new product

可行性分析:分析项目或新产品可能成功的过程

Feature / 特性

Feature: The solution to a consumer need or problem. Features provide benefits to consumers. The handle (feature) allows a laptop computer
 
to be carried easily (benefit). Usually any one of several different features will be chosen to meet a customer need. For example, a carrying case with shoulder straps is another feature that allows a laptop computer to be carried easily.

特性:解决消费者的问题或需求,为消费者提供方便。如:把手的设计可以让手提电脑易于携带。不同的功能适应不同客户的需求。例如,有背带的包也可使手提电脑易于携带。

 

Feature Creep / 特性蔓延

Feature Creep: The tendency for designers or engineers to add more capability, functions and features to a product as development proceeds than were originally intended. These additions frequently cause schedule slip, development cost increases, and product cost increases.

特性蔓延:设计者和工程师为产品增添功能和特征的趋势,通常计划会发生改变,增加开发成本和产品成本。

 

Feature Roadmap / 特性路标规划图

Feature Roadmap: The evolution over time of the performance attributes associated with a product. Defines the specific features associated with each iteration/generation of a product over its lifetime, grouped into releases (sets of features that are commercialized). See also, “Product Life-Cycle Management” and “Cadence Plans”.

特性路标规划图:产品特性随时间进化。产品在其生命周期的各阶段具有不同特性(特性被商业化)。参见“产品生命周期管理”以及 Cadence 计划 。

 

Field Testing / 现场测试

Field Testing: Product use testing with users from the target market in the actual context in which the product will be used.
 
现场测试:在实际环境中测试产品的使用方法。

 


Financial Success / 财务成功

Financial Success: The extent to which a new product meets its profit, margin, and return on investment goals.

财务成功: 新产品实现所设定的利润、收益和投资回报率。

 

First-to-Market / 市场先行者

First-to-Market: The first product to create a new product category or a substantial subdivision of a category.

市场先行者:最早产品,能够带来新的产品种类或丰富的产品子品种。

 

Focus Groups / 焦点小组

Focus Groups: A qualitative market research technique where 8 to 12 market participants are gathered in one room for a discussion under the leadership of a trained moderator. Discussion focuses on a consumer problem, product, or potential solution to a problem. The results of these discussions are not projectable to the general market.

焦点小组:有 8 至 12 个市场参与者在引导下进行讨论的定性市场调研方法。讨论集中在消费者、产品和问题解决方法上,讨论结果不直接映射大众市场。

 

Forecast / 预测

Forecast: A prediction, over some defined time, of the success or failure of implementing a business plan’s decisions derived from an
 
existing strategy. (See Chapter 23 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

预测:基于现有战略和商业计划决策,对于成功或失败的预测。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 23 章)

 

Forming / 形成

Forming: term using for the first stage in team formation where most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven’t fully understood what the team will do.

形成:在团队形成的第一阶段使用的术语,其中大多数团队成员是积极和有礼貌的。 有些人很焦虑,因为他们还没有完全理解团队会做什么。

 

Function / 功能

Function: (1) An abstracted description of work that a product must perform to meet customer needs. A function is something the product or service must do. (2) Term describing an internal group within which resides a basic business capability such as engineering.

功能:(1)产品满足消费者需求的抽象性描述。(2)对具有工程活动等基本商业能力的内部组织进行描述的术语。

 

Functional team / 功能团队

Functional team:    the project is divided into functional components with each component assigned to its own appropriate functional manager.    Coordination is either handled by the functional manager or by senior management.

功能团队:项目分为功能组件,每个组件分配给自己相应的功能管理器。 协调由职能经理或高级管理层处理。
 
Fuzzy Front End / 模糊前端

Fuzzy Front End: The messy “getting started” period of product development, when the product concept is still very fuzzy. Preceding the more formal product development process, it generally consists of three tasks: strategic planning, concept generation, and, especially, pre-technical evaluation. These activities are often chaotic, unpredictable, and unstructured. In comparison, the subsequent new product development process is typically structured, predictable, and formal, with prescribed sets of activities, questions to be answered, and decisions to be made. (See Chapter 6 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

模糊前端:产品开发的凌乱“开始”期,产品概念还很模糊。在正式产品开发流程开始前,有三个任务:战略性计划、概念产生和技术预评估。这些活动比较凌乱,不能预测而且非结构化。比较起来,其后的新产品开发流程更具结构化和更高的预期性,更正式,有一系列可以描述的活动,待回答的问题和待决定决策。

Gamma Test / 伽马测试

Gamma Test:    A product use test in which the developers measure the extent to which the item meets the needs of the target customers, solves the problems(s) targeted during development, and leaves the customer satisfied.

伽马测试:用来衡量产品能在多大程度上帮助消费者满足需求,以解决问题。

 

Gantt Chart / 甘特图

Gantt Chart: A horizontal bar chart used in project scheduling and management that shows the start date, end date and duration of tasks within the project.

甘特图:在项目进度管理中应用的水平条形图,它可以显示开始日期、结束日期和任务持续时间。
 
Gap Analysis / 差距分析

Gap Analysis: The difference between projected outcomes and desired outcomes. In product development, the gap is frequently measured as the difference between expected and desired revenues or profits from currently planned new products if the corporation is to meet its objectives.

差距分析:实际结果和预期结果的差距。在产品开发中,这种差距通过期望收益与现实收益的差距来衡量,以判断公司是否达到目标。

 

Gate / 关口

Gate: The point at which a management decision is made to allow the product development project to proceed to the next stage, to recycle back into the current stage to better complete some of the tasks, or to terminate. The number of gates varies by company. (See Chapter 21 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

关口:产品开发项目进入下一阶段的决策点,以决定是继续或停留在现阶段以更好完成任务,还是停止任务。不同公司的关口数不同。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 21 章)

 

Gatekeepers / 把关者

Gatekeepers: The group of managers who serve as advisors, decision- makers and investors in a Stage-Gate™ process. Using established business criteria, this multifunctional group reviews new product opportunities and project progress, and allocates resources accordingly at each gate. This group is also commonly called a Product Approval Committee or Portfolio Management Team.

把关者:在门径管理流程中的管理者,他们对项目的建议、决策和投资负责。这个多职能群体利用已经建立的业务标准检测新产品发展机遇和项目进展,并在各个关口做出资源分配决策。这个群体也被称作产品批准委员会或组合管理团队。
 
Greenwashing / 绿色清洗

Greenwashing: when a company or organization spends more time and money claiming to be “green” through advertising and marketing than actually implementing business practices that minimize environmental impact.

绿色清洗:当公司或组织通过广告和营销花费更多的时间和金钱声称是“绿色”,而不是实际实施最小化环境影响的商业实践。

 

Growth Stage / 增长阶段

Growth Stage: The second stage of the product life cycle. This stage is marked by a rapid surge in sales and market acceptance for the good or service. Products that reach the growth stage have successfully “crossed the chasm.”

增长阶段:产品生命周期的第二阶段。在这一阶段,产品或服务在销售和市场接受程度上表现为快速的增长。达到增长阶段的产品成功跨越了中断期。

 

Heavyweight Team / 重量级团队

Heavyweight Team: An empowered project team with adequate resourcing to complete the project. Personnel report to the team leader and are co-located as practical.

重量级团队:拥有充足资源完成项目的团队。成员向项目领导汇报并协同定位。

 

Hurdle Rate / 保底收益率

Hurdle Rate: The minimum return on investment or internal rate of return percentage a new product must meet or exceed as it goes through development.

保底收益率: 新产品必须满足或超过的最低投资回报率或内部收益率。
 


Ideation / 创意

Ideation:    The creative process of generating, developing, and communicating new ideas where an idea is a basic element of thought that can be either be visual, concrete or abstract.

创意:创造,发展和传达新想法的创造性过程,其中思想是思维的基本要素, 可以是视觉,具体或抽象的。

 

Implementation Team / 实施团队

Implementation Team: A team that converts the concepts and good intentions of the “should-be” process into practical reality.

实施团队:将构思和好的创意转变为现实的团队。

 

Implicit Product Requirement / 隐含产品需求

Implicit Product Requirement: What the customer expects in a product, but does not ask for, and may not even be able to articulate.

隐含产品需求:指客户对产品的期望,虽然未能言传或清晰表达。

 

Incremental Improvement / 渐进型改善

Incremental Improvement:    A small change made to an existing product that serves to keep the product fresh in the eyes of customers.

渐进型改善:为使现有产品或服务在客户心中长久不衰而进行的细小改进。
 
Information / 信息

Information:    Knowledge and insight, often gained by examining data. 信息:通过分析数据得出的知识和见解。


Initial Screening / 初选

Initial Screening:    The first decision to spend resources (time or money) on a project. The project is born at this point. Sometimes called “idea screening.”

初选:对项目进行投资(时间或金钱)的第一次决策。项目就是在这个时间诞生的,有时叫“创意筛选”。

 

In-licensed / 许可

In-licensed:    The acquisition from external sources of novel product concepts or technologies for inclusion in the aggregate NPD portfolio.

许可:对新产品的概念或技术的外部许可。

 

Innovation / 创新

Innovation:    A new idea, method, or device. The act of creating a new product or process. The act includes invention as well as the work required to bring an idea or concept into final form.

创新:一种新想法,新方法或新设计。创造新产品或流程的行为,包括将概念或创意发展为最终形式所需的创造及劳动。
 
Innovation Steering Committee / 创新引导委员会

Innovation Steering Committee:    the senior management team or a subset of it responsible for gaining alignment on the strategic and financial goals for new product development, as well as setting expectations for Portfolio and Development Teams.

创新引导委员会:判断新产品开发与公司的战略目标和财务目标是否一致的高层管理团队,他们同时对产品组合和开发团队提出期望。

 

Innovation strategy / 创新战略

Innovation strategy: provides the goals, direction and framework for innovation across the organization. Individual business units and functions may have their own strategies to achieve specific innovation goals, but it is imperative that these individual strategies are tightly connected with the over-arching organizational innovation strategy.

创新战略:公司开发新产品和技术的定位。一种分类方法是将它们分为勘探者  (在技术、产品、市场开发、商业化领域领先的公司,尽管其中某一 产品不会盈利)、分析者(快速跟随者或模仿者,跟随勘探者,他们的产品模仿勘探者推向市场的新产品)、捍卫者(公司会采用各种可能的手段 ,维护其市场地位,而不仅仅通过开发新产品的途径)和反应者(没有相应的创新战略)。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第二版第 2 章)

 

Innovation-Based Culture / 基于创新的文化

Innovation-Based Culture:    a corporate culture where senior management teams and employees work habitually to reinforce best practices that systematically and continuously churn out valued new products to customers.

基于创新的文化:公司高层和所有员工努力加强系统化的实践,将有价值的新产品带给客户,这种公司文化即基于创新的文化。
 
Integrated Product Development / 整合产品开发

Integrated Product Development (IPD):    A philosophy that systematically employs an integrated team effort from multiple functional disciplines to develop effectively and efficiently new products that satisfy customer needs.

整合产品开发:系统综合地应用不同功能体系团队的成果,用以有效开发新产品,满足客户需求。

 

Intellectual Property / 知识产权

Intellectual Property (IP):    Information, including proprietary knowledge, technical competencies, and design information, which provides commercially exploitable competitive benefit to an organization.

知识产权:为公司带来可开发的具备竞争优势的信息,包括所拥有的知识、技术能力和设计信息。

 

Internal Rate of Return / 内部收益率

Internal Rate of Return (IRR):    The discount rate at which the present value of the future cash flows of an investment equals the cost of the investment. The discount rate with a net present value of 0.

内部收益率:折现率,即未来投资现金流的折现价值等同于投资成本。净折现率为 0.

 

Intrapreneur / 公司内创业者

Intrapreneur:    The large-firm equivalent of an entrepreneur. Someone who develops new enterprises within the confines of a large corporation.
 
公司内创业者:类似公司内部的企业家,在大公司的内部开发新的公司。

 

Introduction Stage / 引入阶段

Introduction Stage:    The first stage of a product’s commercial launch and the product life cycle. This stage is generally seen as the point of market entry, user trial, and product adoption.

引入阶段:产品上市和产品生命周期的第一个阶段。这个阶段通常是市场准入, 用户试用和产品采用的阶段。

 

ISO-9000 / 国际标准化组织-9000 质量体系标准

ISO-9000:    A set of 5 auditable standards of the International Organization for Standardization that establishes the role of a quality system in a company and which is used to assess whether the company can be certified as compliant to the standards. ISO-9001 deals specifically with new products.

国际标准化组织-9000 质量体系标准 :国际标准组织制定的 5 个审计标准,是考察公司质量体系的准绳,由此可以判断公司是否在质量上达标。ISO—9001 是特别针对新产品进行考察的质量标准体系。

 

Journal of Product Innovation Management /《新产品创新管理》杂志
Journal of Product Innovation Management:    The premier academic journal in the field of innovation, new product development and management of technology. The Journal, which is owned by the PDMA, is dedicated to the advancement of management practice in all of the functions involved in the total process of product innovation. Its purpose is to bring to managers and students of product innovation the theoretical structures and the practical techniques that will enable them to operate at the cutting edge of effective management practice. Web site:    www.pdma.org/journal.
 
《新产品创新管理》杂志:在新产品开发管理技术领域的核心学术杂志,由
PDMA 负责,致力于产品研发过程中管理实践的改进。其目标是为管理 者和产品开发者提供理论框架和实践方法,从而进行高效管理。网页:www.pdma.org/ journal

 

Launch / 发布

Launch: The process by which a new product is introduced into the market for initial sale. (See Chapter 30 of The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

发布:新产品引入市场进行初始销售的过程(参见 PDMA 指导手册第 25、26 章)。

 

Lead Users / 先导用户

Lead Users:    Users for whom finding a solution to one of their consumer needs is so important that they have modified a current product or invented a new product to solve the need themselves because they have not found a supplier who can solve it for them. When these consumers’ needs are portents of needs that the center of the market will have in the future, their solutions are new product opportunities.

先导用户:为满足某种消费需求而寻求解决方案的用户。当消费者尚未发现供应商能满足他们需求,往往自行修改现有产品或发明新产品。当这些消费者的需求成为未来市场需求趋势时,他们的解决方案则会带来新产品的开发机遇。

 

Lean product development / 精益产品开发

Lean product development    (LPD):    the lean    approach to meet the challenges of product development. Lean product development is founded on the fundamental lean methodology initially developed by Toyota (the Toyota Production System TPS).

精益产品开发(LPD):精益的方法来应对产品开发的挑战。 精益产品开发基于丰田(丰田生产系统 TPS)最初开发的基本精益方法。
 


Learning Organization / 学习型组织

Learning Organization:    An organization that continuously tests and updates the experience of those in the organization, and transforms that experience into improved work processes and knowledge that is accessible to the whole organization and relevant to its core purpose. (see Continuous Learning Activity)

学习型组织:在内部不断测试并更新经验的组织,这些经验用于改进和更新与核心目标相关的工作流程,用于更新知识体系,使其为整个组织所采 用。(参见
“持续学习活动”)

 

Life cycle assessment / 生命周期评估

Life cycle assessment:    A scientific method for analysis of the environmental impacts (CO2    footprint, Water footprint, etc.)

生命周期评估:一种分析环境影响(二氧化碳足迹,水足迹等)的科学方法

 

Lightweight Team / 轻量级团队

Lightweight Team:    New product team charged with successfully developing a product concept and delivering to the marketplace. Resources are, for the most part, not dedicated and the team depends on the technical functions for resources necessary to get the work accomplished.

轻量级团队:负责开发新产品并将之推向市场的项目团队。很多情况下,由于缺乏专门资源,团队只能依靠现有资源的技术功能完成任务。

Line Extension / 产品线延伸

Line Extension:    A form of derivative product that adds or modifies features without significantly changing the product functionality.
 
产品线延伸:衍生产品的一种形式,增加或改变了产品特点,但不明显改变产品功能

 

Manufacturability / 维修活动

Manufacturability:    The extent to which a new product can be easily and effectively manufactured at minimum cost and with maximum reliability.

维修活动:旨在用新产品或新服务解决市场初级阶段问题和用户问题的一系列产品开发任务的集合。

 

Manufacturing Design / 制造设计

Manufacturing Design:    The process of determining the manufacturing process that will be used to make a new product. (See Chapter 23
of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

制造设计:确定新产品制造流程的过程。(参见 PDMA 新产品开发手册第 1 版第
23 章)

 

Manufacturing Test Specification and Procedure / 制造测试规范与流程
Manufacturing Test Specification and Procedure:    Documents prepared by development and manufacturing personnel that describe the performance specifications of a component, subassembly, or system that will be met during the manufacturing process, and that describe the procedure by which the specifications will be assessed.

制造测试规范与流程:由开发与制造人员制定的用来描述制造流程中组件、部件或者系统需要达到的性能标准以及描述评估标准过程的说明材料。
 
Market Research / 市场调研

Market Research:    Information about the firm’s customers, competitors, or markets. Information may be from secondary sources (already published and publicly available) or primary sources (from customers themselves). Market research may be qualitative in nature, or quantitative (see entries for these two types of market research).

市场调研:关于公司客户、竞争对手或市场的信息。这些信息可能是二手(已公布或可公开的)资料或者一手资料(来自客户自身)。市场调研可能是定性研究也可能是定量研究(参见两种类型的市场调研)。

 

Market Segmentation / 市场细分

Market Segmentation:    Market segmentation is defined as a framework by which to sub-divide a larger heterogeneous market into smaller, more homogeneous parts. These segments can be defined in many different ways: demographic (men vs. women, young vs. old, or richer vs. poorer), behavioral (those who buy on the phone vs. the internet vs. retail, or those who pay with cash vs. credit cards), or attitudinal (those who believe that store brands are just as good as national brands vs. those who don’t). There are many analytical techniques used to identify segments such as cluster analysis, factor analysis, or discriminate analysis. But the most common method is simply to hypothesize a potential segmentation definition and then to test whether any differences that are observed are statistically significant (See Chapter 13 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

市场细分:市场细分被理解为一个框架,这个框架能将较大的不同种类的市场细分为许多较小的同类市场。划分方式有很多:按人口统计划分方法(男与女,老与少,或贫与富),按行为划分方法(电话订购与网购、零售,现金支付与信用卡支付),或者按态度划分方法(认为商店品牌可媲美国有品牌和与之相反的态度)。同时,有诸多识别细分市场的分析工具,例如集群分析法、因素分析法或者差异分析法。但是,最普遍也最简单的方法是提出潜在细分市场的定义,然后测试是否具有统计学上的意义。
 
Market Share / 市场份额

Market Share:    A company’s sales in a product area as a percent of the total market sales in that area.

市场份额:该公司的销售额在整个市场销售额中所占的百分比。

 

Market Testing / 市场测试

Market Testing: The product development stage when the new product and its marketing plan are tested together. A market test simulates the eventual marketing mix and takes many different forms, only one of which bears the name test market.

市场测试:产品开发阶段,评估新产品及其上市计划。市场测试采用不同形式模拟市场最终情况,其中只有一种称为测试市场。

 

Marketing strategy / 营销策略

Marketing strategy: a process or model to allow an organization to focus limited resources on the best opportunities to increase sales and thereby achieve a unique competitive advantage

营销策略:一个过程或模型,允许组织将有限的资源集中在最佳机会,以增加销售,从而实现独特的竞争优势

 

Maturity Stage / 成熟阶段

Maturity Stage:    The third stage of the product life cycle. This is the stage where sales begin to level off due to market saturation. It is a time when heavy competition, alternative product options, and (possibly) changing buyer or user preferences start to make it difficult to achieve profitability.
 
成熟阶段:产品生命周期的第三阶段。由于市场饱和,这个阶段的销售开始趋于平稳。此时,激烈的竞争、产品多样化选择以及潜在消费者的偏好发生改变从而使得企业难以盈利。

 

Metrics / 度量

Metrics:    A set of measurements to track product development and allow a firm to measure the impact of process improvements over time. These measures generally vary by firm but may include measures characterizing both aspects of the process, such as time to market, and duration of particular process stages, as well as outcomes from product development such as the number of products commercialized per year and percentage of sales due to new products.

度量:一套跟踪产品开发的测量方法,允许公司对流程推进带来的影响进行衡量的测量方法。这些方法因公司而异,包括流程的特征测试,如投放时间、具体开发时间、每年新产品商业化的结果和新产品的销售比重等等。

 

Mind mapping / 思维导图

Mind mapping: A graphical technique for imagining connections between various pieces of information or ideas. The participant starts with a key phrase or word in the middle of a page then works out from this point to connect to new ideas in multiple direction – building a web of relationships.

思维导图:一种图形技术,用于想象各种信息或想法之间的联系。 参与者从页面中间的关键短语或词开始,然后从这一点开始连接到多个方向的新想法 – 构建一个关系网络。

 

Mission / 使命

Mission: The statement of an organization’s creed, philosophy, purpose, business principles, and corporate beliefs.    The purpose of the mission is to focus the energy and resources of the organization
 
使命:组织的信条,哲学,目的,商业原则和企业信念的声明。 任务的目的是集中力量和资源的组织

 

Multidimensional scaling / 多维缩放

Multidimensional scaling    (MDS): is a    means    of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset (for example products or markets)

多维缩放(MDS):是一种可视化数据集(例如产品或市场)的个别案例的相似性水平的手段

 

Multifunctional Team / 跨职能团队

Multifunctional Team:    A group of individuals brought together from the different functional areas of a business to work on a problem or process that requires the knowledge, training and capabilities across the areas to successfully complete the work. (See Chapters 9 and 10 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition    and Chapter 6 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1.) (See also “Cross-Functional Team”.)

跨职能团队:来自不同业务职能领域的个体组成的共同致力于一个问题或者流程的团队。这类问题或者流程的顺利解决亟需成功地整合跨领域知识 、培训和能力。(参见 PDMA 手册(第 2 版)的第九、十章和 PDMA 工具书第一册的第六章)(参见“跨职能团队”)

 

Multivariate analysis / 多元分析

Multivariate analysis:    explores the association between one outcome variable (referred to as the dependent variable) and one or more predictor variables (referred to as independent variables).

多元分析:探讨一个结果变量(称为因变量)和一个或多个预测变量(称为独立变量)之间的关联。
 
Net Present Value / 净现值

Net Present Value    (NPV):    the difference between the    present value    of cash inflows and the    present value    of cash outflows.    NPV    is used in capital budgeting to analyze the profitability of a projected investment or project.

净现值(NPV): 按照公司贴现率或者资金成本,将当前和预期资金的流入与流出折算成现值,以评价不同项目的可比投资。

 

Network Diagram / 网络图

Network Diagram:    A graphical diagram with boxes connected by lines that shows the sequence of development activities and the interrelationship of each task with another. Often used in conjunction with a Gantt Chart.

网络图:以线条相连的方框图表,用于演示开发活动的次序和各项任务之间的相互关系。经常与甘特(Gantt)图联用。

 

New Product / 新产品

New Product:    A term of many opinions and practices, but most generally defined as a product (either a good or service) new to the firm marketing it. Excludes products that are only changed in promotion.

新产品:包含创意与实践的术语,一般而言,新产品指市场上首次出现的产品
(商品或服务)。不仅限于包括在促销阶段推出的产品。

New Product Development / 新产品开发

New Product Development (NPD):    The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product. Also frequently referred to just as “product development.”
 
新产品开发(NPD) : 包括新产品的战略、组织、构思、产品制造和营销策划与评估以及新产品商业化在内的全部过程。通常简称为“产品开发”。

 

New Product Development Process / 新产品开发流程

New Product Development Process (NPD Process):    A disciplined and defined set of tasks and steps that describe the normal means by which a company repetitively converts embryonic ideas into salable products or services. (See Chapters 4 and 5 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

新产品开发流程(NPD 流程):将最初想法不断转化为销售产品和服务,公司所开展的条理化工作流程。(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 4、5 章)

 

New Product Development Professional / 新产品开发专业人员

New Product Development Professional (NPDP):    A New Product Development Professional is certified by the PDMA as having mastered the body of knowledge in new product development, as proven by performance on the Certification test. To qualify for the NPDP certification examination, a candidate must hold a bachelor’s or higher university degree (or an equivalent degree) from an accredited institution and have spent a minimum of two years working in the new product development field.

新产品开发专业人员(NPDP): PDMA 所评定的新产品开发专业人员,应掌握新产品开发的整个知识体系并且需通过认证考试。为保证 NPDP 认证考试的权威性, 报考者必须拥有 公认机构颁发的学士学位或者更高学历(或同等学历),并且具有至少两年的新产品开发从业经验。

 

New Product Introduction / 新产品引入

New Product Introduction (NPI):    The launch or commercialization of a new product into the marketplace. Takes place at the end of a successful product development project. (See Chapter 30 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
 
新产品引入(NPI): 一项新产品进入市场的启动阶段,在新产品项目成功开发的后期。

 

New-to-the-World Product / 全新产品

New-to-the-World Product:    A good or service that has never before been available to either consumers or producers. The automobile was new-to-the-world when it was introduced, as were microwave ovens and pet rocks.

全新产品: 顾客或者生产商从未了解的产品或服务。例如,汽车、微波炉和宠物石在引入时都是全新产品。

 

Non-Product Advantage / 非产品优势

Non-Product Advantage:    Elements of the marketing mix that create competitive advantage other than the product itself. These elements can include marketing communications, distribution, company reputation, technical support, and associated services.

非产品优势:产品本身之外的影响竞争优势的市场因素。这些因素包括市场沟通、分销、公司信誉、技术支持和附加服务。

 

Norming / 规范

Norming:    the third stage of team formation where the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues’ strengths, and respect the leader’s authority.

规范:团队形成的第三阶段,团队进入规范阶段。 这是当人们开始解决他们的分歧,欣赏同事的优势,并尊重领导的权威。
 
Open innovation / 开放式创新

Open innovation: defined    as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal    innovation, and expand the markets for external use of    innovation, respectively

开放式创新:定义为使用有目的的知识流入和流出来加速内部创新,并分别扩大外部使用创新的市场

 

Operations /  运营

Operations:    A term that includes manufacturing but is much broader, usually including procurement, physical distribution, and, for services, management of the offices or other areas where the services are provided.

运营:此术语不仅包括制造过程,还包括采购、分销、服务以及办公管理和其它能提供服务的领域。

 

Opportunity / 机遇

Opportunity:    A business or technology gap that a company or individual realizes, by design or accident, that exists between the current situation and an envisioned future in order to capture competitive advantage, respond to a threat, solve a problem or ameliorate a difficulty.

机遇: 公司或个人认识到的存在于现在和可展望未来之间的商业或技术差距。目的在于捕捉竞争优势、应对危机或者解决难题。

 

Organizational identity / 组织身份

Organizational identity: Fundamental to the long-term success of an organization is a clear definition and understanding of what the organization stands for, why does it exist.
 
组织身份:组织的长期成功的基础是对组织代表什么的清晰的定义和理解,为什么它存在。

 

Outsourcing / 外包

Outsourcing:    The process of procuring a good or service from someone else, rather than the firm producing it themselves.

外包: 公司从外部采购产品或者服务的过程,而不是自己生产所需产品。

 

Outstanding Corporate Innovator Award / 杰出公司创新者奖

Outstanding Corporate Innovator Award:    An annual PDMA award given to firms acknowledged through a formal vetting process as being outstanding innovators. The basic requirements for receiving this award, which is given yearly by the PDMA, are: 1. Sustained success in launching new products over a five-year time frame; 2. Significant company growth from new product success; 3. A defined new product development process, that can be described to others; 4. Distinctive innovative characteristics and intangibles.

杰出公司创新者奖:PDMA 一年一度通过专业认证颁发给杰出创新公司的奖项。要荣获 PDMA 这个年度奖项,需要符合以下基本要求:1. 在开发新产品方面持续
5 年拥有新成果;2. 新产品的成功给公司带来显著的效益增长;3. 能明确定义新产品开发的流程;4. 独特的创新特征及无形资产。

 

Payback / 回报

Payback:    The time, usually in years, from some point in the development process until the commercialized product or service has recovered its costs of development and marketing. While some firms take the point of full-scale market introduction of a new product as the starting point, others begin the clock at the start of development expense.
 
回报:产品或服务商业化以后所获收益与开发和市场成本相抵消的时间,通常以年计算。有的公司将新产品全面投入市场的时间作为起点,而有些公司以投入开发成本开始计算。

 

Perceptual Mapping / 感知映射

Perceptual Mapping:    A quantitative market research tool used to understand how customers think of current and future products.
Perceptual maps are visual representations of the positions that sets of products hold in consumers’ minds.

感知映射:用于了解顾客对当前和未来产品看法的定量市场调研工具。感知映射是产品在消费者心中位置的直观呈现。

 

Performance Measurement System / 绩效评估系统

Performance Measurement System:    The system that enables the firm to monitor the relevant performance indicators of new products in the appropriate time frame.

绩效评估系统:此系统能帮助公司在适当时间内实现对新产品相关绩效指标的监测。

 

Performance metrics / 绩效指标

Performance metrics: a set of measurements to track product development and to allow an organization to measure the impact of process improvement over time. These measures generally vary by organization but may include measures characterizing both aspects of process, such as time to market and duration of particular process stages, as well as outcomes from product development such as the number of products commercialized per year and percentage sales due to new products.

绩效指标:用于跟踪产品开发的一组测量,并允许组织测量过程改进随时间的影响。 这些措施通常因组织而异,但可能包括表征过程的两个方面的措施,例
 
如上市时间和特定过程阶段的持续时间,以及产品开发的结果,例如每年商业化的产品数量和新的产品。

 

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) / 项目评审技术
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique):    An event-oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty in estimates of duration times for individual activities.

PERT(项目评审技术):一种以事件为导向的网络分析技术。通常用于子项目工期具有高度不确定性的整个项目的工期估算。

 


PESTLE / PESTLE 工具

PESTLE:    A structured tool based on the analysis
of    Political,    Economic,    Social,    Technological,    Legal
and    Environmental factors. It is particularly useful as a strategic framework for seeking a better understanding of trends in factors that will directly influence the future of an organization – such as demographics, political barriers, disruptive technologies, competitive pressures, etc.

PESTLE:基于政治,经济,社会,技术,法律和环境因素的一种结构化分析工具。 它是极为有效的战略框架,是对趋势的更精准解读,是分析直接影响组织未来,如人口统计,政治因素,颠覆性技术,竞争压力等因素的关键。

 

Phase Review Process / 阶段审核流程

Phase Review Process:    A staged product development process in which first one function completes a set of tasks, then passes the information they generated sequentially to another function which in turn completes the next set of tasks and then passes everything along to the next function. Multifunctional teamwork is largely absent in
 
these types of product development processes, which may also be called baton-passing processes. Most firms have moved from these processes to Stage-Gate    processes using multifunctional teams.

阶段审核流程:阶梯式的产品开发流程,在此过程中,一职能团队完成一组任 务,所生成的信息传递给另一职能团队,然后此团队完成系列任务并 将信息传递给另外一组职能团队。此类型的产品开发流程并不适合跨职能团队合作,所以大多数公司正从此流程转向跨职能团队阶段–关口流程。

 

Pipeline / 产品管道

Pipeline (product pipeline):    The scheduled stream of products in development for release to the market.

(产品)管道:将开发产品投放市场的预定途径。

 

Pipeline Management / 管道管理

Pipeline Management:    A process that integrates product strategy, project management, and functional management to continually optimize the cross-project management of all development-related activities. (See Chapter 5 in    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition    and Chapter 3
in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

管道管理:将产品战略、项目管理和职能管理整合起来,以持续优化所有相关开发活动中的跨项目管理。(参见 PDMA 手册第一版第 5 章和 PDMA 第二版第 3 章)

 

Platform Product / 平台型产品

Platform Product:    The design and components that are shared by a set of products in a product family. From this platform, numerous derivative products can be designed. (See also product platform)

平台型产品:一系列同类产品的设计和组成。这个平台可设计多种派生产品。
(参见产品平台)
 
Platform projects / 平台项目

Platform projects: produce a set of subsystems and interfaces that form a common structure, from which a stream of derivative products can be efficiently developed and produced.

平台项目:生成一组形成公共结构的子系统和接口,从中可以有效地开发和生产衍生产品流。

 

Portfolio / 组合

Portfolio:    Commonly referred to as a set of projects or products that a company is investing in and making strategic trade-offs against. (See also project portfolio and product portfolio)

组合:通常指公司正在投资并进行战略规划的一系列项目或者产品。(参见项目组合和产品组合)

 

Portfolio Criteria / 组合关键指标

Portfolio Criteria:    The set of criteria against which the business judges both proposed and currently active product development projects to create a balanced and diverse mix of ongoing efforts.

组合关键指标:用来评价现有或计划中的产品开发项目以协调和平衡各方力量的一系列关键指标。

 

Portfolio Management / 组合管理

Portfolio Management:    A business process by which a business unit decides on the mix of active projects, staffing and dollar budget allocated to each project currently being undertaken. See also pipeline management. (See Chapter 13 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1    and Chapter 3 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)
 
组合管理:对项目活动、人员以及分配到各项目的预算进行业务管理的过程。参见渠道管理。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册第 13 章和 PDMA 手册第二版第 3 章)

 

Portfolio Rollout Scenarios / 组合产品首次公开展示

Portfolio Rollout Scenarios:    hypothetical illustrations of the number and magnitude of new products that would need to be launched over a certain time frame to reach the desired financial goals; accounts for success/failure rates and considers company and competitive benchmarks.

组合产品首次公开展示:为达到期望的财务目标、成功率和公司竞争性指标,对一定时期内新产品的投入数量和规模的假设描述。

 


Primary market research /  首要市场研究

Primary market research: is defined as original research conducted by you (or someone you hire) to collect data specifically for your current objective

首要市场研究:定义为您(或您雇用的人)为您当前目标收集数据而进行的原始研究

 

Process Champion / 流程负责人

Process Champion:    The person responsible for the daily promotion of and encouragement to use a formal business process throughout the organization. They are also responsible for the ongoing training, innovation input and continuous improvement of the process.

流程负责人:流程负责人负责推动正式流程的日常工作,负责对流程进行调整、创新和改进。
 
Process Managers / 流程经理

Process Managers:    The operational managers responsible for ensuring the orderly and timely flow of ideas and projects through the process.

流程经理:运营经理,负责确保创意流程和项目流程有序及时地进行。

 

Process Owner / 流程拥有者

Process Owner:    The executive manager responsible for the strategic results of the NPD process. This includes process throughput, quality of output, and participation within the organization. (See Section 3 of    The PDMA ToolBook    for 4 tools that process owners might find useful, and see Chapter 5 of    The PDMA HandBook.)

流程拥有者:对新产品开发流程的战略性结果负责的执行经理。其工作包括流程生产能力、输出质量和组织内的参与度。

 

Product / 产品

Product:    Term used to describe all goods, services, and knowledge sold. Products are bundles of attributes (features, functions, benefits, and uses) and can be either tangible, as in the case of physical goods, or intangible, as in the case of those associated with service benefits, or can be a combination of the two.

产品:用以描述所有商品、服务和所售知识的术语。产品是一系列属性(特征、功能、优点和用处)的组合,它们可以是有形的、有物形态的;也可以是无形的和服务利益相结合的;也可以是两者的结合。
 
Product and Process Performance Success / 产品和流程绩效成功
Product and Process Performance Success:    The extent to which a new product meets its technical performance and product development process performance criteria.

产品和流程绩效成功:新产品满足其技术绩效指标和产品开发流程绩效指标的程度。

 

Product Architecture / 产品架构

Product Architecture:    The way in which the functional elements are assigned to the physical chunks of a product and the way in which those physical chunks interact to perform the overall function of the product. (See Chapter 16 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

产品架构:将功能要素分配到产品的物理模块,这些物理模块相互作用,发挥产品的所有功能。

 

Product backlog / 产品积压

Product backlog:    A basis of agile product development. The requirements for a system, expressed as a prioritized list of product backlog items. These include both functional and non-functional customer requirements, as well as technical team-generated requirements

产品积压:敏捷产品开发的基础。 对系统的要求,表示为产品积压项目的优先级列表。 这些包括功能和非功能客户要求,以及技术团队生成的要求

 

Product Definition / 产品定义

Product Definition:    Defines the product, including the target market, product concept, benefits to be delivered, positioning
 
strategy, price point, and even product requirements and design specifications.

产品定义:对产品包括目标市场、产品概念、收益、市场定位战略、市场价格、产品要求和设计规格的定义。

 

Product Development & Management Association (PDMA) / 产品开发与管理协会
Product Development & Management Association (PDMA):    A not-for- profit professional organization whose purpose is to seek out, develop, organize and disseminate leading edge information on the theory and practice of product development and product development processes. The PDMA uses local, national, and international meetings and conferences, educational workshops, a quarterly magazine (Visions), a bi-monthly scholarly journal (Journal of Product Innovation Management), research proposal and dissertation proposal competitions,    The PDMA HandBook of New Product Development 1st and 2nd Editions, and    The PDMA ToolBook 1 for New Product
Development        to achieve its purposes. The association also manages the certification process for New Product Development Professionals. Web site:    www.pdma.org.

产品开发与管理协会(PDMA):探求、发展、组织和传播产品开发领域前沿理论与实践知识的非盈利性专业组织。在实现其目标的过程中,PD MA 召开地方性、国家级和国际性会议,建立教育体系,创办季刊杂志(《展望》)和双月刊学术期刊(《产品创新管理》),审查提议和论文, 完成《PDMA 新产品开发手册》
(第一版)和《新产品开发工具书》(第一版)。PDMA 还从事新产品开发专业人士的认证工作。网址:www.pdma.org.

 

Product Development / 产品开发

Product Development:    The overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product. (See Chapters 19
– 22 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)
 
产品开发:新产品的战略、组织、概念产生、产品计划及市场计划的制定和评估以及商业化的整个流程。

Product Development Process / 产品开发流程

Product Development Process:    A disciplined and defined set of tasks, steps, and phases that describe the normal means by which a company repetitively converts embryonic ideas into salable products or services. (See Chapters 4 and 5 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

产品开发流程:一整套明确的任务、步骤和阶段,表明了公司不断将初始概念转化成可销售产品或者服务的正式途径。(参见 PDMA 手册第 6 章和第 7 章)

 


Product development Team / 产品开发团队

Product development Team:    That group of persons who participate in the product development project. Frequently each team member represents a function, department, or specialty. Together they represent the full set of capabilities needed to complete the project. (See Chapter 9 in        The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition    and Chapter 6 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

产品开发团队:由多人组成的跨职能团队,负责策划和执行新产品开发项目。

 

Product Discontinuation / 产品废止

Product Discontinuation:    A product or service that is withdrawn or removed from the market because it no longer provides an economic, strategic, or competitive advantage in the firm’s portfolio of offerings. (See Chapter 28 of    The PDMA HandBook 1st Edition.)

产品废止:一种产品或服务从市场上撤回或退出,因为它在公司产品中不再具有经济、战略或竞争性优势。(参见 PDMA 手册第一版的第 28 章)
 
Product Failure / 产品失败

Product Failure:    A product development project that does not meet the objective of its charter or marketplace.

产品失败:一个产品开发项目没有满足公司和市场目标。

 

Product Family / 产品系列

Product Family: The set of products that have been derived from a common product platform. Members of a product family normally have many common parts and assemblies.

产品系列:一个公共产品平台衍生出的一系列产品。产品系列一般都有很多共同部分和组件。

 

Product Innovation Charter (PIC) / 产品创新章程

Product Innovation Charter (PIC):    A critical strategic document, the Product Innovation Charter (PIC) is the heart of any organized effort to commercialize a new product. It contains the reasons the project has been started, the goals, objectives, guidelines, and boundaries of the project. It is the “who, what, where, when, and why” of the product development project. In the Discovery phase, the charter may contain assumptions about market preferences, customer needs, and sales and profit potential. As the project enters the Development phase, these assumptions are challenged through prototype development and in-market testing. While business needs and market conditions can and will change as the project progresses, one must resist the strong tendency for projects to wander off as the development work takes place. The PIC must be constantly referenced during the Development phase to make sure it is still valid, that the project is still within the defined arena, and that the opportunity envisioned in the Discovery phase still exists.

产品创新章程(PIC):指导新产品开发工作的职能部门或者项目团队的策略综 述。PIC 详述了项目运行的领域、目标和通常采用的方法。它适用于 单个项目或者项目的整个规划。参见文档最后的备注里修改和扩充的定义。
 


Product Life Cycle / 产品生命周期

Product Life Cycle:    The four stages that a new product is thought to go through from birth to death: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Controversy surrounds whether products go through this cycle in any predictable way.

产品生命周期:新产品从出现到消失有四个阶段:引入期、成长期、成熟期和衰退期。但存在的争议是这个循环的方式是否可预测。

 

Product Life-Cycle Management / 产品生命周期管理

Product Life-Cycle Management:    Changing the features and benefits of the product, elements of the marketing mix, and manufacturing operations over time to maximize the profits obtainable from the product over its lifecycle. (See Chapter 33 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

产品生命周期管理:随着时间推移改变产品特性和功能、市场混合要素和制造过程,以在产品生命周期中获取利润最大化。(参见 PDMA 手册第二 版的第 33 章)

 

Product Management / 产品管理

Product Management:    Ensuring over time that a product or service profitably meets the needs of customers by continually monitoring and modifying the elements of the marketing mix, including: the product and its features, the communications strategy, distribution channels and price.

产品管理:通过不断监控和检测混合市场的基本要素(其中包括产品及自身特征、沟通战略、销售渠道和价格),随时确保产品或者服务能充分满足客户需求。
 
Product Manager / 产品经理

Product Manager:    The person assigned responsibility for overseeing all of the various activities that concern a particular product.
Sometimes called a brand manager in consumer packaged goods firms.  产品经理:总体监督产品开发活动的人,在消费品包装产品公司称为品牌经理。


Product Platforms / 产品平台

Product Platforms:    Underlying structures or basic architectures that are common across a group of products or that will be the basis of a series of products commercialized over a number of years.

产品平台:一组产品所共有的基础结构或者在若干年内一系列商业化产品涌现的基础结构。

 

Product Portfolio / 产品组合

Product Portfolio:    The set of products and product lines the firm has placed in the market. (See Chapter 13 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

产品组合:一系列已上市的公司产品和产品线。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第13 章)

 

Product Positioning / 产品定位

Product Positioning:    how a product will be marketed to customers. The product positioning refers to the set of features and value that is valued by (and therefore defined by) the target customer audience, relative to competing products.

产品定位:产品推销给客户的方式。产品定位指一系列的价值和特性,这些由目标客户决定,与竞争产品相关。
 
Product Rejuvenation / 产品复兴

Product Rejuvenation:    The process by which a mature or declining product is altered, updated, repackaged or redesigned to lengthen the product life cycle and in turn extend sales demand.

产品复兴:对成熟产品或处于衰退期的产品进行改进、更新、再包装或者再设计的过程,以延长产品生命周期,扩大需求规模。

 

Product Requirements Document / 产品需求文件

Product Requirements Document:    The contract between, at a minimum, marketing and development, describing completely and unambiguously the necessary attributes (functional performance requirements) of the product to be developed, as well as information about how achievement of the attributes will be verified (i.e. through testing).

产品需求文件:营销与开发之间的合同,全面、清晰地描述待开发产品的必要属性(功能性要求)并提供属性验证的信息(如通过测试)。

 

Product Superiority / 产品优越性

Product Superiority:    Differentiation of a firm’s products from those of competitors, achieved by providing consumers with greater benefits and value. This is one of the critical success factors in commercializing new products.

产品优越性:公司产品相对于竞争对手的优势,可通过为客户提供更大利益和价值来获得。这是新产品商业化成功的关键要素之一。

 

Program Manager / 项目经理

Program Manager:    The organizational leader charged with responsibility of executing a portfolio of NPD projects. (See Section 4 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1    for 4 product development tools a program manager may find helpful.)
 
项目经理:负责新产品开发项目组合的领导者。

Project Decision Making & Reviews / 项目决策与审核

Project Decision Making & Reviews:    A series of Go/No-Go decisions about the viability of a project that ensure the completion of the project provides a product that meets the marketing and financial objectives of the company. This includes a systematic review of the viability of a project as it moves through the various phase stage gates in the development process. These periodic checks validate that the project is still close enough to the original plan to deliver against the business case (See Chapters 21 and 22 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition).

项目决策与审核:审核项目的可行性及产品满足公司市场目标和财务目标的能 力,依次做出一系列通过/不通过决策。包括在开发流程中各阶段关口进行的针对项目可行性的系统审查。这些阶段性的审查确保项目与原始计划保持一致。
(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 21 和第 22 章)

 

Project Leader / 项目负责人

Project Leader:    The person responsible for managing an individual new product development project through to completion. He or she is responsible for ensuring that milestones and deliverables are achieved and that resources are utilized effectively. See also Team Leader. (See Sections 1 and 2 of    The PDMA ToolBook 1    for 8 product development tools for project leaders)

项目负责人:管理单个新产品开发项目一切工作的人。他/她能有效利用资源、负责实现突破与成果交付。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 1、2 节 关于项目负责人的产品开发工具)

 

Project Management / 项目管理

Project Management:    The set of people, tools, techniques, and processes used to define the project’s goal, plan all the work necessary to reach that goal, lead the project and support teams,
 
monitor progress, and ensure that the project is completed in a satisfactory way.

项目管理:制定项目目标、筹划所有必要工作、引导项目和支撑团队、监督进度、确保项目圆满完成的人、工具、技术和流程。

 

Project Pipeline Management / 项目渠道管理

Project Pipeline Management:    Fine-tuning resource deployment smoothly for projects during ramp-up, ramp-down, and mid-course adjustments.

项目渠道管理:在项目盈利、亏损和中间适应过程之间平稳地进行资源调配。

 

Project Plan / 项目计划

Project Plan:    A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and control. Documents planning assumptions and decisions, facilitates communication among stakeholders, and documents approved scope, cost, and schedule deadlines.

项目计划:指导项目实施和控制的正式批准文件。文件详细地说明了对计划的设想和决策,促进股东之间的沟通,同时还提出了项目计划的范围、成本和时间期限。

 

Project Portfolio / 项目组合

Project Portfolio:    The set of projects in development at any point in time. These will vary in the extent of newness or innovativeness. (See Chapter 13 in    The PDMA ToolBook 1    and Chapter 3 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

项目组合:产品开发流程中的一系列项目。它们会随着创新程度的不同而不同。
 
Project Resource Estimation / 项目资源预估

Project Resource Estimation:    This activity provides one of the major contributions to the project cost calculation. Turning functional requirements into a realistic cost estimate is a key factor in the success of a product delivering against the business plan.

项目资源预估:这项工作对于项目成本核算至关重要。按照业务计划,成功地进行产品交付的一个关键要素是将功能性要求转换为现实的成本估算。

 

Project Sponsor / 项目发起人

Project Sponsor:    The authorization and funding source of the project. The person who defines the project goals and to whom the final results are presented. Typically, a senior manager.

项目发起人:项目的授权者和资金提供者。他是项目目标的制定者,同时也是项目结果的评价者,通常为高级经理。

 

Project Strategy / 项目战略

Project Strategy:    The goals and objectives for an individual product development project. It includes how that project fits into the firm’s product portfolio, who the target market is, and what problems the product will solve for those customers. (See Chapter 2 in The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

项目战略:产品开发项目的目标。包括项目是如何融入公司的产品组合、它的目标市场,以及如何满足客户需求。(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 2 章)

 

Project Team / 项目团队

Project Team:    A multifunctional group of individuals chartered to plan and execute a new product development project.

项目团队:负责筹划和实施新产品开发项目的跨职能小组。
 


Prospectors / 朝阳公司

Prospectors:    Firms that lead in technology, product and market development and commercialization, even though an individual product may not lead to profits. Their general goal is to be first to market with any particular innovation.

朝阳公司:即使个别产品不产生利润,但在技术、产品、市场开发以及商业运作方面领先的公司。他们的总体目标是通过某种创新领先市场。

 

Prototype / 产品原型

Prototype:    A physical model of the new product concept. Depending upon the purpose, prototypes may be non-working, functionally working, or both functionally and aesthetically complete.

产品原型:新产品概念的物理模型。根据目的不同,产品原型可分为非实用型、功能实用型或者实用美观型。

 

Psychographics / 消费心理学

Psychographics: Characteristics of consumers that, rather than being purely demographic, measure their attitudes, interests, opinions, and lifestyles.

消费心理学:不仅指人口统计学方面的特征,还包括消费者态度、兴趣、意见和生活方式的消费者特征。

 

Qualitative Marketing Research / 定性市场调研

Qualitative Marketing Research:    Research conducted with a very small number of respondents, either in groups or individually, to gain an impression of their beliefs, motivations, perceptions and opinions.
Frequently used to gather initial consumer needs and obtain initial
 
reactions to ideas and concepts. Results are not representative of the market in general or projectable. Qualitative marketing research is used to show why people buy a particular product, whereas quantitative marketing research reveals how many people buy it. (See Chapters 14-16 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

定性市场调研:对于部分人群进行个体或集体调研,了解他们的想法、意向、动机和观点。收集用户的需求信息并获得其对于创意和概念的第一反 应。这些结果不代表市场整体现状。定性市场调研用来表明消费者购买产品的原因,而定量市场调研揭示购买产品的用户数量。(参见 PDMA 手册 的第 11 章)

 

Quality / 质量

Quality:    The collection of attributes, which when present in a product, means a product has conformed to or exceeded customer expectations.

质量:这是产品特性的集合,当这一集合在产品中得到体现时,就意味着产品已达到了用户的预期。

 

Quality Assurance / 质量保证

Quality Assurance/Compliance: Function responsible for monitoring and evaluating development policies and practices, to ensure they meet company and applicable regulatory standards.

质量保证:负责监督和评估产品开发的制度和实践,以确保达到公司标准,满足规范要求。

 

Quality Control Specification and Procedure / 质量控制规范与程序
Quality Control Specification and Procedure:    Documents that describe the specifications and the procedures by which they will be measured which a finished subassembly or system must meet before judged ready for shipment.
 
质量控制规范与程序:描述程序与规范的文件。准备装运之前,要检查部件或者系统是否符合要求。

 

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) / 质量功能开发

Quality Function Deployment (QFD):    A structured method employing matrix analysis for linking what the market requires to how it will be accomplished in the development effort. This method is most frequently used during the stage of development when a multifunctional team agrees on how customer needs relate to product specifications and the features that deliver those needs. By explicitly linking these aspects of product design, QFD minimizes the possibility of omitting important design characteristics or interactions across design characteristics. QFD is also an important mechanism in promoting multifunctional teamwork. Developed and introduced by Japanese auto manufacturers, QFD is widely used in the automotive industry.

质量功能开发(QFD):市场需要与开发工作相结合,运用矩阵分析论的结构化方法。当一个跨职能团队认同客户的需求与产品细节和特性紧密 联系时,这种方法便能得到应用。明确地将产品设计的各方面联系起来,避免其在特性设计过程中删除重要设计特性或者隔断特性间的联系,有利 于促进多方合作。由于日本汽车制造商的开发和引进,QFD 在汽车制造业得到广泛应用。

 

Quality-by-Design / 质量策划

Quality-by-Design:    The process used to design quality into the product, service, or process from the inception of product development.

质量策划:在产品开发伊始设定的确保产品、服务或者流程质量的过程。

 

Quantitative Market Research / 定量市场调研

Quantitative Market Research:    Consumer research, often surveys, conducted with a large enough sample of consumers to produce statistically reliable results that can be used to project outcomes
 
to the general consumer population. Used to determine importance levels of different customer needs, performance ratings of and satisfaction with current products, probability of trial, repurchase rate, and product preferences. These techniques are used to reduce the uncertainty associated with many other aspects of product development. (See Chapter 18 of    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.)

定量市场调研:一种用户调研方法,最常使用的形式是问卷调查,通过对大量用户的调查得出可信数据结果,以分析项目对于用户的数量影响。定 量市场调研用来判定一些重要的水平等级,包括不同用户的需求、现有产品性能等级和满意程度、试验的可能性、二次购买率和对产品的喜好程度 等。这项技术可以减少产品开发流程中的诸多不确定因素。(参见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 18 章)

 

Radical Innovation / 突破型创新

Radical Innovation:    A new product, generally containing new technologies, that significantly changes behaviors and consumption patterns in the marketplace.

突破型创新:一种包括新技术,并能够改变市场行为和消费方式的产品创新。

Random Sample / 随机样本

Random Sample: a subset of a statistical population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen

随机样本:统计总体的子集,其中子集的每个成员具有相等的被选择的概率

 

Reactors / 回应者

Reactors:    Firms that have no coherent innovation strategy. They only develop new products when absolutely forced to by the competitive situation.

回应者:没有任何新战略的公司。它们只有在面对竞争压力的时候,才被迫开发新的产品。
 
Reposition / 重新定位

Reposition:    To change the position of the product in the minds of customers, either on failure of the original positioning or to react to changes in the marketplace. Most frequently accomplished through changing the marketing mix rather than redeveloping the product.

重新定位:为了弥补最初定位的失误或者应对市场变化,而改变产品在客户心目中的地位。改变市场定位比开发产品更能获得收益。

 

Resource Matrix / 资源矩阵

Resource Matrix:    An array that shows the percentage of each non- managerial person’s time that is to be devoted to each of the current projects in the firm’s portfolio.

资源矩阵:用于显示在公司组合中,每位非管理员工消耗在公司每个现行项目上时间的百分比例阵。

 

Resource Plan / 资源规划

Resource Plan:    Detailed summary of all forms of resources required to complete a product development project, including personnel, equipment, time, and finances.

资源规划:完成产品开发项目所需要各种资源的详细总结,包括人员、设备、时间和资金。

 

Return on Investment (ROI) / 投资回报率

Return on Investment (ROI):    A standard measure of project profitability, this is the discounted profits over the life of the project expressed as a percentage of initial investment.

投资回报率(ROI):一项衡量项目收益的标准,它是项目在整个生命周期中的收益折现与初始投资的百分比。
 


Risk / 风险

Risk:    An event or condition that may or may not occur, but if it does occur will impact the ability to achieve a project’s objectives. In new product development, risks may take the form of market, technical, or organizational issues. For more on managing product development risks, see Chapters 8 and 15 in the    PDMA ToolBook 1    and Chapter 28 in    The PDMA HandBook 2nd Edition.

风险:未知事件或情况可能影响到项目的进行。在新产品开发流程中,风险可能会表现为市场、技术或者组织上的问题。(要了解更多关于处理产 品开发风险的知识,参见 PDMA 工具书的第 8 章和第 15 章)

 

Risk Acceptance / 风险认可

Risk Acceptance:    An uncertain event or condition for which the project team has decided not to change the project plan. A team may be forced to accept an identified risk when they are unable to identify any other suitable response to the risk.

风险认可:项目团队不因风险而变动项目计划。当一个团队无法消除风险时,他们将不得不接受风险。

Risk Avoidance / 风险避免

Risk Avoidance:    Changing the project plan to eliminate a risk or to protect the project objectives from any potential impact due to the risk.

风险避免:变动项目计划以消除风险或保护项目不受风险影响。

 

Risk Management / 风险管理

Risk Management:    The process of identifying, measuring, and mitigating the business risk in a product development project.
 
风险管理:在一个产品开发的项目中,识别、分析、减少商业风险的过程。

 

Risk Mitigation / 风险减控

Risk Mitigation:    Actions taken to reduce the probability and/or impact of a risk to below some threshold of acceptability.

风险减控:为了将风险的影响和/或可能性降低到一个可承受的程度而采取的行动。

 

Risk Tolerance / 风险容限

Risk Tolerance:    The level of risk that a project stakeholder is willing to accept. Tolerance levels are context specific. That is, stakeholders may be willing to accept different levels of risk for different types of risk, such as risks of project delay, price realization, and technical potential.

风险容限:项目投资人可以接受的风险级别。也就是说,投资人会根据不同的风险种类来调整自己可接受的风险级别,如项目延迟的风险、价格风险和技术的潜在风险等。

 

Risk Transference / 风险转移

Risk Transference:    Actions taken to shift the impact of a risk and the ownership of the risk response actions to a third party.

风险转移:将一个风险的影响和作用范围转移到第三方的行为。

 

Roadmapping / 路线图制定

Roadmapping: A graphical multi-step process to forecast future market and/or technology changes, and then plan the products to address these changes.
 
路线图制定:一种图形化、多步骤的过程。用来预测未来市场和/或技术的发展,这样可以设计产品来适应这些发展变化。

 

roduct owner / 产品所有者

Product owner: Commonly used in agile product development. The product owner is the single person who must have final authority representing the customer’s interests in backlog prioritization and requirements questions.

产品所有者:常用于敏捷产品开发。 产品所有者是必须具有表示客户在积压优先级和需求问题中的兴趣的最终权限的单个人。

Routine innovation / 日常创新

Routine innovation: Builds on an organization’s existing technological competencies and fits with its existing business models. Innovation is focused on feature improvement and new versions or models.

日常创新:建立在组织现有的技术能力之上,符合其现有的商业模式。 创新专注于功能改进和新版本或模型。

 

Sales forecasting / 销售预测

Sales forecasting: predicting the sales potential for a new product using techniques such as the A-T-A-R (Awareness-Trial-Availability-
Repeat) model

销售预测:使用诸如 A-T-A-R(意识 – 试用 – 可用性 – 重复)模型之类的技术来预测新产品的销售潜力

 

Sales wave research / 销售波研究法

Sales wave research: customers who are initially offered the product at no cost are re-offered it, or a competitor’s product, at slightly
 
reduced prices. The offer may be made as many as 5 times. The number of customers continuing to select the product and their level of satisfaction is recorded

销售波段研究(销售波研究法):最初免费提供产品的客户以略低的价格重新提供产品或竞争对手的产品。 报价可以多达 5 次。 记录继续选择产品的顾客数量及其满意度

 

Scamper / Scamper 策略

Scamper:    an ideation too that utilizes actions verbs as stimuli. S
– Substitute;    C – Combine; A – Adapt; M – Modify; P – Put to another use; E – Eliminate; R – Reverse

Scamper 策略:一种创意工具,一系列激发创意的行为。S – 替代; C – 合并; A – 改造; M – 调整; P – 改变用途; E – 去除; R – 逆向操作

 

Scenario Analysis / 场景分析

Scenario Analysis:    A tool for envisioning alternate futures so that a strategy can be formulated to respond to future opportunities and challenges. (See Chapter 16 of the PDMA ToolBook 1.)

场景分析:预想未来场景以实施策略来应对未来机会和挑战的工具。(参见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 16 章)

 


Screening / 筛选

Screening:    The process of evaluating and selecting new ideas or concepts to put into the project portfolio. Most firms now use a formal screening process with evaluation criteria that span customer, strategy, market, profitability and feasibility dimensions.

筛选:评估新想法或概念并将其应用到项目投资组合的流程。现在大多数公司都在应用一种正式的筛选流程,它具有客户、战略、市场、收益率和可行性等评价指标。
 


Scrum

Scrum:    A term used in agile product development. Arguably it is the most popular framework for implementing agile. With scrum, the product is built in a series of fixed-length iterations giving teams a framework for shipping software on a regular cadence

Scrum:用于敏捷产品开发的术语。 可以说,它是实现敏捷的最流行的框架。使用 scrum,该产品是建立在一系列固定长度的迭代,给团队一个框架,以定期节奏的航运软件

 

Scrum Team / Scrum 团队

Scrum Team: Commonly used in agile product development. Usually made up of seven, plus or minus two, members. The team usually comprises a mix of functions or disciplines required to successfully complete the sprint goals (cross-functional team).

Scrum 团队:常用于敏捷产品开发。 通常由七个,加或减两个成员组成。 团队通常包括成功完成冲刺目标(跨职能团队)所需的功能或学科的组合。

 

Scrum-master

Scrum-master:    Commonly used in agile product development. The facilitator for the team and product owner. Rather than manage the team, the ScrumMaster works to assist both the team and the product owner

Scrum-master:常用于敏捷产品开发。 团队和产品负责人的协调人。 Scrum
Master 不是管理团队,而是协助团队和产品所有者
 
S-Curve / S 曲线

S-Curve (Technology S-Curve):    Technology performance improvements tend to progress over time in the form of an “S” curve. When first invented, technology performance improves slowly and incrementally. Then, as experience with a new technology accrues, the rate of performance increase grows and technology performance increases by leaps and bounds. Finally, some of the performance limits of a new technology start to be reached and performance growth slows. At some point, the limits of the technology may be reached and further improvements are not made. Frequently, the technology then becomes vulnerable to a substitute technology that is capable of making additional performance improvements. The substitute technology is usually on the lower, slower portion of its own “S” curve and quickly overtakes the original technology when performance accelerates during the middle (vertical) portion of the “S”.

S 曲线(技术—S 曲线):技术绩效改进随着时间而呈现“S”形曲线。在新产品开发初期,技术绩效改进曲线会缓慢逐步上升。随着开发新技术的经验不断积
累,绩效增加和技术绩效呈跨越式增长。最后,新产品技术接近绩效极限后, 技术绩效的增长速度放缓。在某一节点,技术开发达到极限点,而进一步改进尚未完成。此时,原技术往往被另一种能实现更多绩效改进的技术所替代。这种替代技术处于自身 S 曲线的下端,并在其快速成长期到达 S 曲线的中间垂直) 部分时,迅速取代原有技术。

 

Secondary market research / 二级市场研究

Secondary market research: is defined as research that involves searching for existing data that was originally collected by someone else.

二级市场研究:定义为涉及搜索最初由他人收集的现有数据的研究。

Segmentation / 市场细分

Segmentation:    The process of dividing a large and heterogeneous market into more homogeneous subgroups. Each subgroup, or segment, holds similar views about the product, and values, purchases, and uses the product in similar ways. (See Chapters 3 and 4 of The PDMA HandBook)
 
市场细分:将一个大的庞杂市场划分为许多同类的子市场的过程。每一个子市场或细分市场对产品、价值、消费和产品使用都有着相似的观点和方法。(参见
PDMA 手册的第 3 章和第 4 章)

 

Senior Management / 高级管理层

Senior Management:    That level of executive or operational management above the product development team that has approval authority or controls resources important to the development effort.

高级管理层:高于产品开发团队的执行或运行管理层,具有表决权或控制项目开发的重要资源。

 

Sensitivity Analysis / 敏感性分析

Sensitivity Analysis:    A calculation of the impact that an uncertainty might have on the new product business case. It is conducted by setting upper and lower ranges on the assumptions involved and calculating the expected outcomes. (See Chapter 16 of The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

敏感性分析:对某一不确定因素对新产品业务产生影响的估计。通过设置相关假设的上限和下限进行管理,并计算期望结果。(参见 PDMA 工具书 第一册的第
16 章)

 

Services / 服务

Services:    Products, such as an airline flight or insurance policy, which are intangible or at least substantially so. If totally intangible, they are exchanged directly from producer to user, cannot be transported or stored and are instantly perishable. Service delivery usually involves customer participation in some important way. Services cannot be sold in the sense of ownership transfer, and they have no title of ownership.
 
服务:飞机航班或保险政策等不能运输或储藏的无形产品,通过生产者和使用者进行交换。服务交付通常需要消费者的参与,不能以所有者转移的形式来销售服务而且服务也没有所有权。

 

Simulated Test Market / 模拟营销测试

Simulated Test Market:    A form of quantitative market research and pre-test marketing in which consumers are exposed to new products and to their claims in a staged advertising and purchase situation.
Output of the test is an early forecast of expected sales or market share, based on mathematical forecasting models, management assumptions, and input of specific measurements from the simulation.

模拟营销测试:一种定量市场调研和营销预测的形式。消费者在特定广告阶段和购买情景下接触新产品。测试结果可以早期预测销售额或市场份额,这种预测是建立在数学预测模型、管理假设和模拟中的具体指标的基础之上。

 

Six Sigma / 六西格玛

Six Sigma:    A level of process performance that produces only 3.4 defects for every one million operations.

六西格玛:每一百万个操作只产生 3.4 次错误的流程运营水平。

 

Six thinking hats / 六顶思考帽

Six thinking hats: A tool developed by Edward de Bono which encourages team members to separate thinking into six clear functions and roles. Each role is identified with a color-symbolic “thinking hat.”

六顶思考帽:爱德华·德·波诺开发的一个工具,它鼓励团队成员将思维分成六个明确的职能和角色。 每个角色都用一个颜色象征的“思维帽”来标识。
 
Social media / 社交媒体

Social media: computer-mediated tools that allow people, companies and other organizations to create, share, or exchange information, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual communities and networks.

社交媒体:计算机中介工具,允许人们,公司和其他组织在虚拟社区和网络中创建,共享或交换信息,想法和图片/视频。

 

Specification / 规格

Specification:    A detailed description of the features and performance characteristics of a product. For example, a laptop computer’s specification may read as a 90 megahertz Pentium, with 16 megabytes of RAM and 720 megabytes of hard disk space, 3.5 hours of battery life, weight of 4.5 pounds, with an active matrix 256 color screen.

规格:对产品特征和性能的具体描述。例如,一种笔记本电脑的规格可能配有
90 兆赫的奔腾处理器、16 兆的 RAM 存储和 720 兆的硬盘空间,电池可 持续使用 3.5 小时,重量 4.5 磅,显示器配有 256 种色彩。

 

Speed to Market / 上市速度

Speed to Market:    The length of time it takes to develop a new product from an early initial idea for a new product to initial market sales. Precise definitions of the start and end point vary from one company to another, and may vary from one project to another within a company. (See Chapter 24 of The PDMA HandBook)

上市速度:从开发新产品的最初创意到新产品最初上市销售的时间。精确的开始和结束点根据各公司情况不同而有差异,同一公司的不同项目也会有所不同。
 
Sponsor / 发起人

Sponsor:    An informal role in a product development project, usually performed by a higher-ranking person in the firm who is not directly involved in the project, but who is ready to extend a helping hand if needed, or provide a barrier to interference by others.

发起人:新产品开发项目中的非正式角色。他通常在公司中具有较高的级别,并不直接参与项目,但是在关键时候会伸出援助之手并力排众议。

 

Sprint / 冲刺

Sprint:    A term used in agile product development. A set period of time during which specific work has to be completed and made ready for review

冲刺:用于敏捷产品开发的术语。 特定工作必须完成并准备审查的一段时间

 

Stage / 阶段

Stage:    One group of concurrently accomplished tasks, with specified outcomes and deliverables, of the overall product development process.

阶段:产生指定结果和可交付成果的一组同时完成的任务,是整个产品开发流程的一部分。

Staged Product Development Activity / 阶段产品开发活动

Staged Product Development Activity: The set of product development tasks commencing when it is believed there are no major unknowns and that result in initial production of salable product, carried out in stages.

阶段产品开发活动:当确定没有重要未知因素出现时,产品开发活动开始进行。
 
Stage-Gate Process / 阶段-关口流程

Stage-Gate Process:    A widely employed product development process that divides the effort into distinct time-sequenced stages separated by management decision gates. Multifunctional teams must successfully complete a prescribed set of related cross-functional tasks in each stage prior to obtaining management approval to proceed to the next stage of product development. The framework of the Stage-Gate™ process includes work-flow and decision-flow paths and defines the supporting systems and practices necessary to ensure the process’s ongoing smooth operation.

阶段—关口流程:一种广泛使用的产品开发流程,依照管理决策关口划分不同阶段。在获得许可进入下一产品开发阶段之前,跨职能开发团队必须 成功完成当前阶段的相关任务。阶段关口流程的框架包括工作流程和决策流程途径,为确保流程顺利制定支撑体系并进行实践。

 

Standard Cost / 标准成本

Standard Cost:    See Factory Cost. 标准成本:见制造成本。


Star products / 明星产品

Star products: products that command a significant market share in a growing overall market.

明星产品:在不断增长的整体市场中占据重要市场份额的产品。

 

Storming / 风暴

Storming:    the second stage in team formation where people start to push against the boundaries established. This is where many teams fail. Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members’ natural working styles.
 
风暴:团队形成的第二阶段,人们开始推动建立的边界。 这是许多团队失败的地方。 风暴经常发生在团队成员的自然工作风格之间的冲突。

 

Storyboarding / 故事板

Storyboarding:    Focuses on the development of a story, possibly about a consumer’s use of a product, to better understand the problems or issue that might lead to specific product design attributes

故事板:重点关注故事的发展,可能关于消费者使用产品,更好地了解可能导致特定产品设计属性的问题或问题

 

Strategic Balance / 战略平衡

Strategic Balance:    Balancing the portfolio of development projects along one or more of many dimensions such as focus versus diversification, short versus long term, high versus low risk, extending platforms versus development of new platforms.

战略平衡:开发项目组合在一个或多个领域内的平衡,如专一与多样、短期与长期、高风险与低风险、产品平台延伸与新产品平台开发。

 

Strategic fit / 战略适合

Strategic fit: Ensure projects are consistent with the articulated strategy.    For example, if certain technologies or markets are specified as areas of strategic focus do the projects fit into these areas?

战略适合:确保项目符合明确的战略。例如,如果某些技术或市场被指定为战略重点领域,项目是否适合这些领域?
 
Strategic Partnering / 战略伙伴

Strategic Partnering:    An alliance or partnership between two firms (frequently one large corporation and one smaller, entrepreneurial firm) to create a specialized new product. Typically, the large firm supplies capital, and the necessary product development, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution capabilities, while the small firm supplies specialized technical or creative expertise.

战略伙伴:两个公司共同开发某种新产品而实现的联盟或合作。在通常情况下, 大公司提供资金和产品开发、营销、制造、分销能力,而小公司则提供特殊技术或创新性技术。

 

Strategic priorities / 战略优先

Strategic priorities: For example, if the organization is seeking technology leadership then the balance of projects in the portfolio should reflect this focus.

战略优先:例如,如果组织寻求技术领先,则组合中的项目的平衡应该反映这个重点。

 

Strategy / 战略

Strategy:    The organization’s vision, mission, and values. One subset of the firm’s overall strategy is its Innovation Strategy.

战略:公司的远景、使命和价值。公司整体战略包含创新部分。

Stratified sampling / 分层抽样

Stratified sampling: the population is divided into strata according to some variables that are thought to be related to the variables that we are interested in. A sample is taken from    each    stratum.

分层抽样:根据一些变量将人口分成若干层,这些变量被认为与我们感兴趣的变量有关。从每个层取样。
 


Stratified sampling / 分层抽样

Stratified sampling: the population is divided into strata according to some variables that are thought to be related to the variables that we are interested in. A sample is taken from    each    stratum.

分层抽样:根据一些变量将人口分成若干层,这些变量被认为与我们感兴趣的变量有关。从每个层取样。

 

Support projects / 支持项目

Support projects: can be incremental improvements in existing products or improvements in manufacturing efficiency of an existing product. Generally, they are low risk.

支持项目:可以对现有产品进行渐进式改进或提高现有产品的制造效率。 一般来说,他们是低风险。

 

Sustainable development / 可持续发展

Sustainable development:    development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

可持续发展:满足当代人的需要,而不损害后代满足自己需要的能力的发展

 

Sustainable innovation / 可持续创新

Sustainable innovation:    The process in which new products or services are developed and brought to commercialization and, in which the characteristics of sustainable development are respected from the economical, environmental and social angle, in the sourcing, production, use and end-of-service stage of the product life cycle.
 
可持续创新:新产品或服务的开发和带来商业化的过程,其中可持续发展的特点从经济,环境和社会角度,在采购,生产,使用和服务终止 阶段的产品生命周期。

 

Sustaining innovation / 持续创新

Sustaining innovation:    does not create new markets or value networks but only develops existing ones with better value, allowing the companies to compete against each other’s sustaining improvements.

持续创新:不会创造新的市场或价值网络,而只是开发具有更高价值的现有市场,使公司能够相互竞争,持续改进。

 

SWOT Analysis / SWOT 分析

SWOT Analysis:    “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats” Analysis. A SWOT analysis evaluates a company in terms of its advantages and disadvantages versus competitors, customer requirements, and market/economic environmental conditions.

SWOT 分析: 对优势、劣势、机遇和威胁进行分析。SWOT 分析从其竞争对手、客户需求、市场或经济环境的角度对公司进行优势/劣势评价。

 

Target Market / 目标市场

Target Market:    The group of consumers or potential customers selected for marketing. This market segment is most likely to buy the products within a given category. These are sometimes called “prime prospects.”

目标市场:挑选一组消费者或潜在消费者作为营销目标。同一细分市场中的消费者可能会购买同一种类型的产品。这些有时称作“主要期望”。
 
Task / 任务

Task:    The smallest describable unit of accomplishment in completing a deliverable.

任务:能够产生可交付成果的最小可描述单元。

 

Team / 团队

Team: defined as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, with a clear set of performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable

团队:参与新产品开发项目的人员。通常每位团队成员代表一种职能、一个部门或一个专业。他们彼此协作充分发挥各自的能力就能完成项目。( 见 PDMA 手册第二版的第 9 章和 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 6 章)

 

Team Leader / 团队领导

Team Leader:    The person leading the new product team. Responsible for ensuring that milestones and deliverables are achieved, but may not have any authority over project participants. (See Sections 1 and 2 of    The PDMA ToolBook    for 8 product development tools for Team Leaders.)

团队领导:领导新产品开发团队的人员,负责确保产品有所突破并上市,但其无法超越项目参与者的职权。(见 PDMA 工具书的第一和第 2 部分关 于团队领导的
8 种开发工具)

 

Technology foresighting / 技术展望

Technology foresighting: a process for looking into the future to predict    technology trends and the potential impact on the organization.
 
技术展望:探索未来以预测技术趋势和对组织的潜在影响的过程。

 

Technology Road Map / 技术路线图

Technology Road Map:    A graphic representation of technology evolution or technology plans mapped against time. It is used to guide new technology development for or technology selection in developing new products.

技术路线图:以时间为节点的技术进化或技术计划的示意图。在开发新产品中用来指导新技术开发或技术选择。

Technology strategy / 技术战略

Technology strategy: a plan for the maintenance and development of technologies that supports the future growth of the organization and aids the achievement of its strategic goals.

技术战略:维持和发展支持组织未来发展并有助于实现其战略目标的技术的计划。

 

Technology Transfer / 技术转移

Technology Transfer:    The process of converting scientific findings from research laboratories into useful products by the commercial sector. May also be referred to as the process of transferring technology between alliance partners.

技术转移:将实验室的科学发现转变成可以商业化产品的过程。也可指技术在合伙人之间的转移过程。

 

Technology-Driven / 技术驱动

Technology-Driven:    A new product or new product strategy based on the strength of a technical capability. Sometimes called “solutions in search of problems.”
 
技术驱动:基于技术能力的新产品或新产品战略,也被称为“研究问题的方案”。

 

Test Markets / 测试市场

Test Markets:    The launching of a new product into one or more limited geographic regions in a very controlled manner, and measuring consumer response to the product and its launch. When multiple geographies are used in the test, different advertising or pricing policies may be tested and the results compared.

测试市场:为了观察消费者对产品的反应,将新产品以一种严格控制的方式投放到一个或者多个有限区域。针对多个地域,可将不同广告定位或产品定价进行比较。

Time to Market / 上市时间

Time to Market:    The length of time it takes to develop a new product from an early initial idea for a new product to initial market sales. Precise definitions of the start and end point vary from one company to another, and may vary from one project to another within the company.

上市时间:从新产品的初始创意到初始市场销售所要花费的时间。开始和结束时间的精确定义依据公司的不同而有所变化,同一公司内不同项目也有所区别。

 

Top down portfolio selection / 自上而下的产品组合选择

Top down portfolio selection: Also known as the strategic bucket method, relies on starting with strategy and placing significant emphasis on project selection according to this strategy.

自上而下的产品组合选择:也被称为战略桶方法,由战略开始,并根据战略重点选择项目。
 
Total Quality Management (TQM) / 全面质量管理

Total Quality Management (TQM):    A business improvement philosophy that comprehensively and continuously involves all of an organization’s functions in improvement activities.

全面质量管理(TQM):涉及组织的所有职能领域,且能全面持续地改进质量的方法。

 

Triple bottom line / 三重底线

Triple bottom line:    reports an organization’s performance against 3 dimensions: Financial, Social, Environmental

三重底线:根据三个维度报告组织的绩效:财务,社会,环境

 

Triple constraint / 三重约束

Triple constraint:    the combination of the three most significant restrictions on any project: scope, schedule and cost.    The triple constraint    is sometimes referred to as the project management triangle or the iron triangle

三重约束:对任何项目的三个最重要的限制的组合:范围,进度和成本。 三重约束有时被称为项目管理三角形或铁三角形

TRIZ / 创新性解决问题理论

TRIZ:    The acronym for the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, which is a Russian, systematic method of solving problems and creating multiple-alternative solutions. It is based on an analysis and codification of technology solutions from millions of patents. The method enhances creativity by getting individuals to think beyond their own experience and to reach across disciplines to solve problems using solutions from other areas of science.
 
创新性解决问题理论(TRIZ):创新性解决问题理论是俄罗斯的解决问题和创造多种可替代解决方案的系统方法。它是基于对数以万计的专利技术的分析,通常用于激发人们超越自我经历、并跨学科思考问题的解决方案。

 

Unarticulated customer needs / 未明确的客户需求

Unarticulated customer needs: those needs that a customer is either unwilling or unable to explain.

未明确的客户需求:客户不愿意或无法解释的那些需求。

 


User / 用户

User:    Any person who uses a product or service to solve a problem or obtain a benefit, whether or not they purchase it. Users may consume a product, as in the case of a person using shampoo to clean their hair or eating a potato chip to assuage hunger between meals. Users may not directly consume a product, but may interact with it over a longer period of time, like a family owning a car, with multiple family members using it for many purposes over a number of years.
Products also are employed in the production of other products or services, where the users may be the manufacturing personnel who operate the equipment.

用户:利用产品或服务解决问题或获得收益却未必购买产品或服务的人群。用户会消费一种产品,就像人们会用香波来洗头发,吃薯片来缓解饥饿。即使用户可能不会直接消费这种产品,但也会在相当长的一段时间内和它打交道。例
如,一个家庭拥有一辆汽车,家庭中不同成员会在多年使用它以满足不同需 要。产品可用来生产其它产品或服务,如用户可能是操作该设备的生产人员。

 

Value / 价值

Value:    Any principle to which a person or company adheres with some degree of emotion. It is one of the elements that enter into formulating a strategy.
 
价值:个人或公司持有情感程度的准则。它是战略因素之一。

 

Value Proposition / 价值主张

Value Proposition:    A short, clear, and simple statement of how and on what dimensions a product concept will deliver value to prospective customers. The essence of “value” is embedded in the tradeoff between the benefits a customer receives from a new product and the price a customer pays for it. (see Chapter 3 of the    PDMA ToolBook 1).

价值主张:对于产品概念向潜在客户传递价值的简短以及明确的陈述。“价值” 的本质植根于用户从新产品中获得的收益和为它所付出的价钱之间的 协调一致。(见 PDMA 工具书第一册的第 3 章)

 

Value-added / 附加值

Value-added:    The act or process by which tangible product features or intangible service attributes are bundled, combined or packaged with other features and attributes to create a competitive advantage, reposition a product or increase sales.

附加值:有形的产品特征或无形的服务价值组合起来或打包,用以创造竞争优势、重新定位产品或增加销售额

 


Virtual Team / 虚拟团队

Virtual Team:    Dispersed teams that communicate and work primarily electronically may be called virtual teams.

虚拟团队:工作地点分散、主要依靠网络彼此协作的团队。
 
Vision / 愿景

Vision:    An act of imagining, guided by both foresight and informed discernment, that reveals the possibilities as well as the practical limits in new product development. It depicts the most desirable, future state of a product or organization.

愿景:一种具有洞察力和远见的表达。它揭示了新产品开发中的可能性和实际制约条件。它描述了一个产品或组织最期望的未来状态。

Visions / 《展望》

Visions:    The new product development practitioner-oriented magazine of the PDMA.

《展望》:PDMA 创办的以创业者为导向的新产品开发杂志。

 

Voice of the Customer (VOC) / 客户心声

Voice of the Customer (VOC):    A process for eliciting needs from consumers that uses structured in-depth interviews to lead interviewees through a series of situations in which they have experienced and found solutions to the set of problems being investigated. Needs are obtained through indirect questioning by coming to understand how the consumers found ways to meet their needs, and, more important, why they chose the particular solutions they found. (See Chapter 11 of        The PDMA ToolBook 1.)

客户心声(VOC):为了找出问题的解决方法,对消费者的一系列经验和环境进行深层次的系统采访,以提炼出客户需求的过程。通过间接调查 了解消费者如何满足自身需求以及他们选择解决方式的原因,进而最终确定消费者需求。(见PDMA 工具书的第 11 章)

 

Waste / 损耗

Waste:    Any activity that utilizes equipment, materials, parts, space, employee time, or other corporate resource beyond minimum amount required for value-added operations to ensure
 
manufacturability. These activities could include waiting, accumulating semi-processed parts, reloading, passing materials from one hand to the other, and other nonproductive processes. The seven basic categories of waste that a business should strive to eliminate: overproduction, waiting for machines, transportation time, process time, excess inventory, excess motion, and defects.

损耗:超额使用设备、原料、零件、场地、用工时间或其它公司资源,增加成 本,减少收益的行为。这些行为包括等待、增加半成品零件、重复装 运、原料传递和其它非生产流程。有 7 类基本损耗是公司应该尽量减少的:生产过剩、等待机器时间、运输时间、流程时间、过度存货、过度运转 和缺损。

 

Waterfall process / 瀑布过程

Waterfall process:    a sequential design    process, used in
software    development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, production/implementation and maintenance.

瀑布过程:一个顺序设计过程,用于软件开发过程,其中进展被视为在概念, 启动,分析,设计,构造,测试,生产/实施和维护阶段稳定地向下流动(如瀑布)。

 

Whole Product / 完整产品

Whole Product:    A product definition concept that emphasizes delivering all aspects of a product which are required for it to deliver its full value. This would include training materials, support systems, cables, how to recipes, additional hardware/software, standards and procedures, implementation, applications consulting – any constitutive elements necessary to assure the customer will have a successful experience and achieve at least minimum required value from the product.

完整产品:一种产品定义,强调产品的全方位价值应得到完全体现。具体包括培训材料、支持系统、电缆、其他软件/硬件、标准和程序、实施、  应用咨询等。完整产品的各要素由公司的合作者提供。这一术语通常应用于高科技产品的设计。
 
Workplan / 工作计划

Workplan:    Detailed plan for executing the project, identifying each phase of the project, the major steps associated with them, and the specific tasks to be performed along the way. Best practice workplans identify the specific functional resources assigned to each task, the planned task duration, and the dependencies between tasks. See also, “Gantt chart.

工作计划:为实施项目、确定项目阶段、相关步骤和具体任务的计划。良好的实施计划区分每项任务所分配的资源,制定任务持续时间,明确任务间的关联。参见甘特图。

NPDP(产品经理国际资格认证)专业英语

出处:扇贝/单词/单词书https://www.shanbay.com/wordbook/157516/ https://www.shanbay.com/wordbook/157882/


Chapter 1 战略 Strategy (179 单词)

implementation    n.执行sustenance    n. 维持生计, 食物
ongoing adj. 前进的,进行的 n. 前进,举止,行为
offering n. 提供, 奉献物, 牲礼 vbl. 提供, 出价, 奉献fundamental adj. 基本的,根本的,重要的 n. 基本原理,基础insight    n. 洞察力
expand    vt. 增加,详述,扩展,使...膨胀 vi. 扩展,增加,详述
extinction    n.熄灭; 消灭,灭绝; 废除; [物]消光,自屏,衰减carry out    vt. 实行(执行,实现)
cross section 横切面,剖面,样品,抽样
differentiate    vt. 识别, 使差异, 求导数, 区分, 区别对待 vi. 区别,变异
definition    n. 定义, 阐释,清晰度
clear    adj. 清楚的,明确的,澄清的,头脑清醒的 vt. 澄清,清除障碍, 使明亮, 明确 vi.  变清晰, 消失, 放晴 adv. 清楚地, 一直 n. 间隙, 空地, 开旷的地方
overall    adj. 全部的, 全体的, 一切在内的 adv. 总的来说, 全部地 n. 防护服,罩衫
broadly adv. 宽广地, 明白地, 概括地 adv. 无礼貌地hierarchy    n. 等级制度,层级[计],统治集团emphasis    n. 强调,重点
collaboration n. 合作, 通敌
 
establish    v. 建立, 确立, 创办
content n. 内容, 目录, 含量 adj. 满足的, 满意的 vt. 使...满足, 使...安心engrain     vt.染成木纹色,使根深蒂固,[喻]使遍体渗透 adj.根深蒂固的explicit    adj. 明确的,详述的,明晰的,外在的
sacrosanct    adj.  神圣不可侵犯的embed    vt. 栽种,使嵌入,使深留脑中identity n. 身份,一致,特征
distinguish    vt. 区别,辨认,特别关注 vi. 区别foundation    n. 基础;地基;基金会;根据;创立creed    n. 信条, 教义
adhere    vi. 坚守于, 对...忠贞, 紧抓着, 遵守 vt. 使附着, 使粘牢
critically adv. 批评性地, 爱挑剔地, 重要地, 危急地vary    vt. 改变,使多样化 vi. 变化,违背multifaceted adj. 多层面的
overarching    adj. 包罗万象的;影响一切的
diversified    adj.多变化的,各种的synergy n. 增效作用,协同作用
whole    adj. 整个的, 完全的, 未受损的, (人)全面发展的 n. 全部,  通常情况 adv.  完全地, 统一地
discuss    vt. 讨论
aggregate    n. 合计, 总计, 集合体 adj. 合计的, 集合的, 聚合的 v. 聚集, 集合, 合计
division n. 区分,分开,除法,公司,部门,师(军队里)
integrate    v. 整合, 使...成整体
articulate    adj. 有关节的,发音清晰的 vt. &vi. 以关节连接,接合,明白地说
stipulate    vt. &vi. 规定,保证 adj. 有明文规定的
align    vt. 使成一行, 使一致, 使结盟, 调整, 排列 vi. 成一条线
grab bag    n.摸彩袋,(各色人等、各种成分的)混杂,聚合
coordinate    n. 同等的人物; (色调, 图案, 样式等)配套服装 adj. 同等的,  等位的; (大学)男女分院制的 v. 协调, 整合; 使一致 [计算机] 坐标
imperative    n. 命令, 诫命, 需要 adj. 命令式的, 急需的
tailored adj. 特制的,合身的
evaluate vt. 评估,评价
trade off    v.交替换位,交替使用;卖掉;  权衡pharmaceutical    adj. 药物的(医药的) n. 药品(成药) appropriate    adj. 适当的, 相称的 vt. 拨出(款项); 占用approach    n. 接近; 途径, 方法 v. 靠近, 接近, 动手处理starting point n. 起点, 出发点
landscape    n. 风景,山水,风景画 v. 美化…的景观,进行造园工程
no mean    相当的,很好的
relative adj. 相对的,比较的,涉及到的 n. 亲属,同类事物,相关物
allocate v. 分派, 分配, 分配额
disruptive    adj. 捣乱的, 破坏性的, 制造混乱的
limo    n. 豪华轿车 <口>=limousine
quadrant    象限
 
disrupt    adj. 分裂的,分散的 v. 使...分裂,使...瓦解
refer    vt. 把…提交; 把...归因, 归类为 vi. 谈及, 咨询, 参考
sustaining    adj. 支持的,  持续的architectural adj. 建筑的,建筑学的,建筑术的disruption    n. 分裂, 毁坏
context    n. 上下文, 环境,背景
intrinsical    adj. 内在的,固有的,实质的
contrast  n.对比,对照; 差异; 对照物,对立面; [摄]反差trap    n. 圈套,陷阱,困境,双轮轻便马车 vt. &vi. 设圈套,设陷阱
overnight    n. 前晚 adj. 通宵的, 晚上的, 前夜的 adv. 在前一夜, 整夜, 昨晚一晚上
creep    vi. 爬, 蔓延 n. 爬, 徐行, 蠕动disregard        n. 不理会, 漠视 vt. 忽视, 不顾deficiency    n. 缺乏,不足,缺点
overcome    vt. 战胜,克服,(感情等)压倒, 使受不了 vi. 获胜, 赢
embrace    n. 拥抱 v. 拥抱,互相拥抱,包含
segment    n. 部分 v. 部分,段,分割 vt. 分割
specific    adj. 特殊的, 明确的, 具有特效的 n. 特效药, 特性, 详情
foothold n. 立足处, 据点, 根据地
influential    adj. 有权势的,有影响的 n. 有影响力的人物
inferior    adj. 次等的, 较低的, 不如的
in time    迟早; 最后; 及时; 经过一段时间之后
significantly    adv. 较大地(重要地)
outweigh    v. 比...为重, 比...重要, 比...有价值
utilize    vt. 利用
absorb    v. 吸收,吸引...的注意,使全神贯注
purist    n. 纯化论者,纯粹主义者
broad    adj.宽阔的; 广泛的; 概括的; 明显的 n.婆娘segmentation        n.分割,[生]细胞分裂,[计]程序分段scope    n. 能力,范围,眼界,机会,余地 vt. 仔细研究commodity    n. 商品, 日用品
throughput    n. 产量,吞吐量
frill n. 衣饰上的绉边, 褶皱 (复数)frills: 虚饰,装腔作势 vt. 加褶边于
minor    adj. 次要的, 较小的, 二流的, 未成年的 n. 未成年人, 辅修科目, [音乐]小调 vi.
辅修
margin    n. 差额,利润,页边空白,边缘 vt. 使围绕于,加边缘profit    n. 利润, 盈利比率,利益 vi. 利用,获利 vt. 有益于profit margin n. 利润率
intimacy n. 亲昵的言行,熟悉,亲密,密切关系
sound    vt.  听(诊);测量,测…深;使发声;试探;宣告 n.  声音,语音;噪音;海峡;吵闹;听力范围;[医] 探条 adj.  健全的,健康的;合理的;可靠的;有效彻底的 adv.  彻底地,充分地 vi. 听起来;发出声音;回响;测深
foresight    n. 远见, 深谋远虑
relatively    adv. 比较地, 相对地
ntimate adj. 亲密的,私人的,秘密的 n. 密友 vt. 透露,暗示
 
specialized    专门的 专科的prospector    n. 探矿者,投机家reactor    n. 反应者,反应堆duress    n. 强迫, 监禁
averse    adj. 厌恶的, 反对的reverse engineering    反向工程state-owned adj. 州立的,国营的
stream    n. (人,车,气)流,水流,组 vt. 流出,飘动 vi. 流动,飘动,接踵而来derivative    adj. 引出的,系出的 n. 引出之物,系出物,衍生字 n. 导数, 微商efficiently    adv.有效率地,有效地
underlying    adj. 在下面的, 基本的, 隐含的
implement    n. 工具, 器具; 当工具的物品 vt. 实施, 执行; 向...提供工具(或手段) leverage n. 杠杆作用, 影响力 v. 举债经营, 贷款投机
significant    adj. 有意义的, 意味深长的; 相当数量的; 重要的,  重大的 n. (复)有意义的事物; 标志
floor plan        (楼房设计的)平面图chassis    n. 底盘
rear    n. 后面,背后,臀部 adj. 后面的,背面的,后方的 vt. 养育,饲养,举起,建立 vi. 高耸, 用后腿站立
axle    n. 轮轴, 车轴
competitive edge n. 竞争优势,竞争地位
complement n. 补语;余角;补足物;补体 vt. 补足,补助seen as    被 看 作 是                        demographic 人口统计学的 adj. 人口的,人口统计的contributor    n. 贡献者,  捐助者,  赠送者,投稿人encapsulate    v. 装入胶囊, 封进内部, 压缩
breadth n. 宽 度
distribution    n. 分发, 分配, 散布, 分布
marketing mix        销售组合aesthetics    n. 美学,审美学trade fair    商品交易会
publicity n. 公众的注意,宣传,宣扬,宣传品,广告
penetration    n. 渗透,侵入,突破,
skimming    n. 撇沫,撇取,浏览 动词 skim 的现在分词tangible   adj.  有形的,  可触摸的,  确凿的,  实际的augment    vt. 增加,补充 vi.扩大 n. 增加,补充物consistent    adj. 始终如一的, 一致的, 坚持的
sleek    adj. 光滑的,井然有序的 v. 使光滑,梳拢styling    n. 造型,式样,设计 动词 style 的现在分词market share 市场占有率
divest    v. 剥除, 脱去,剥夺,摆脱
proposition    n.  (难办或诱人的)事情,任务;见解;观点;(美国的)法律修正案;提议;建议;提案 vt. 向…提出下流的要求;向…提出猥亵的要求
reactive adj. 反动的, 反应性的, 反冲的
 
proactive    adj. 先发制人的, 〈心理〉前摄的; 〈自控〉有前瞻性的, 先行一步的
strategic adj. 战略的,重要的,基本的
optimize        v. 使...完美,乐观,使...完善 v.优化ad hoc    特定, 专门, 临时
monetization n.当作货币,铸造货币mitigate v. 镇静,缓和,减轻 v. 缓和realization    n. 实现,领悟,实得capability    n. 能力,才能,性能,容量
partially adv. 部份地, 一部份地, 不公平地purposive    adj.       有目的的,       故意的inflow    n. 流入(物)
outflow vi. 流出 n. 流出,流出物respectively    adv. 各自地, 分别地permeable    adj. 可渗透的
inward    adj. 内心的,里面的 向内的,亲密的 adv. 向内 n.内部,内在outward adj. 向外的, 表面的, 外部的 adv. 向外, 在外, 表面
spin off    vt. 作为副产品等而生产(摆脱) clarity    n. 清楚, 透明
intent    n. 意图,目的,意向, 含义 adj. 专心的,决心的,热心的
assumption    n. 假定,设想,担任(职责等),假装
tendency    n. 趋势,倾向
valid    adj. 有确实根据的; 有效的; 正当的, 合法的
envision n. 预想 v. 想象,预想 vt. 想象
append v. 附加,添加,悬挂 n.[计算机] DOS 命令建立数据文件的子目录搜索路经
validation    n. 确认
constraint    n. 约束, 强制, 约束条件, 对感情的压抑, 虚情假意 [计算机] 限制
theatrical    adj. 剧场的, 夸张的
denote    vt. 象征,表示
sporting adj. 喜好运动的,运动用的,冒险性的
take place    v. 发生, 顶替
expenditure    n. (时间、劳力、金钱等)支出,使用,消耗involvement    n. 包含, 缠绕, 混乱, 复杂的情况roadmap    n.路标
initiative    adj. 创始的, 初步的, 自发的 n. 第一步, 首创精神; 主动权
intend    v. 打算 vt. 想要,打算,计划
literature    n. 文学, 文献
harmonize    v. 协调,使和谐,用和声唱


Chapter 2 组合管理 Portfolio Management (55 单词)

in turn    依次,轮流 反之,反过来
maintenance n. 维护, 保持, 维修, 生活费用 n. 供给, 抚养; 主张
invariably    adv. 不变化地, 一定不变地, 常常地
 
interdependent    adj. 相互依赖的, 互助的
in terms of    adj. 按照(依据,用...词句,用...来,通过) pipeline n. 管道, 管线
thinly    adv.薄薄地,稀疏地,细细地
set out    出发 v. 规划,展现 v. 出发,开始
optimal adj. 最佳的, 最理想的
ideation n. 构思能力, 思维能力, 构思过程
execution        n. 实行,完成,执行reliance n. 信赖,所信赖的人或物linkage    n. 连合, 连锁, 结合
characteristic adj. 特有的, 典型的 n. 特性, 特征, 特色
completion    n. 完成,完满derive    v. 得自, 起源, 引申于breakthrough        n.  突破strive    v. 努力,奋斗,力争
incremental    adj. 增量的,增加的
competitive    adj. 竞争的, 比赛的
breakdown    n. 崩溃,故障,分类,腐烂,失败,一种街舞
as a whole    adv. 整个来说(总体上)
top down    adj. 自顶向下的,从整体到细节的
bottom up    倒置,颠倒,倒着
strict    adj.  严格的,  精确的,  完全的subjective    adj. 主观的 n. 主格,主观事物nevertheless adv. 仍然, 不过 conj. 然而, 不过readily    adv. 不迟疑地,迅速地,轻易地
reasonably    adv. 适度地, 相当地,合理地,有理性地
feasibility    n.可行性,可能性implication    n. 暗示,含意
funnel    n. 漏斗;烟囱 vt. 通过漏斗或烟囱等;使成漏斗形 vi. 通过漏斗等;成漏斗形
worthwhile    adj. 值得(做)的
consistency    n. 坚持, 一致性, 强度, 硬度, 浓稠度
carry forward vt. 推进(转入或下周)
assign    v. 分配,指派 n.[计算机] DOS 命令将驱动器符重指向第二个驱动器符
criterion n. 标准, 准则
criteria    n.pl.标准
weighting        n. 加权,加重, 称量, 评价 adj. 额外的(开销等) viable    adj. 能生存的,可行的,能居住的的
namely    adv. 即,  也就是cumulative    adj. 累积的,附加的analyse vt. 分析, 检讨, 细察guestimate    n.依推测的估计,推测
crude    adj. 粗鲁的,简陋的,天然的,未加工的 n. 原油proportional adj. 成比例的,相称的 n. [数]比例项representation    n. 表示法,表现,陈述,答辩
 
proportion    n. 比例,均衡,部分 vt. 使成比例,使均衡,分摊
alignment    n. 队列,成直线;校准;结盟
plot    n. 阴谋, 情节,图, (小块)土地, v. 绘图, 密谋, 计划,标示位置
allocation    n. 配置, 分配, 安置
overload    v. 超载,过载,超过负荷 n. 超载,负荷过多 [计算机] 过载
against    prep.    反对,倚靠,违背,防御,相比,相对individual        adj.  个别的;  独有的 n.  个人,  个体plague    n. 瘟疫, 麻烦, 灾祸 vt. 折磨, 烦扰, 造成麻烦

Chapter 3 新产品流程 New Products Process (115 单词)

multidisciplinary    adj.包括各种学科的,有关各种学问的; 多学科; 多部门; 多科目
uncertainty    n. 不确定, 不可靠, 半信半疑 (学术)不可信度; 偏差
stake    n. 木桩,赌注,股份 vt. 打赌,下赌注;用桩支撑decrease        n. 减少(量),降低 vt.& vi.  减少,降低amount n. 数量, 总额 vi. 总计, 等于
bold adj. 大胆的,粗体的,醒目的,无礼的,陡峭的sentiment n.  感情,  情趣,  意见,观点,  多愁善感scale up 按比例增加
prior    adj. 更重要的, 较早的, 在先的 adv. 居先 n. 小修道院院长; 大修道院副院长
discipline    n. 训练, 纪律, 惩罚; 学科 vt. 训练, 惩罚
repetitive    adj. 重复的
embryonic    adj. 胚胎的, 萌芽期的
salable    adj. 适于销售的,有销路的 =saleable formalization n.形式化,礼仪化
in-depth adj. 深入的, 彻底的
submission    n.    服从,柔和,提交qualitative    adj. 性质上的, 质的, 定性的transparent    adj. 透明的, 明显的, 清晰的rigid    adj. 僵硬的,刻板的,严格的perceive v. 察觉, 感觉, 认知, 理解
stifling    adj. 令人窒息的 动词 stifle 的现在分词linear    adj.  直线的,线性的,长度的sequential    adj. 连续的(序贯的)
intention        n. 意图,意向,目的originator        n. 创始人, 发起人verification    n. 确认, 查证, 作证ambiguous    adj.  模棱两可的ample    adj. 充足的,丰富的,宽敞的
expertise    n. 专家的意见,专门技术
duration n. 持续时间,期间
restrict    v. 限制,约束
spiral    n. 旋涡, 螺旋形之物 adj. 螺旋形的,  盘旋的 v.  成螺旋状下降或上升,  成螺旋状旋转
 
concurrent    adj. 同时发生的
intend to    想要,打算
premise vt. 引出,预先提出;作为…的前提 n. 前提;上述各项;房屋连地基 vi. 作出前提
producibility n.可生产
disposal n. 处理,消除,销毁,处置 n. 弃菜碾碎器computational        adj. 计算的,电脑的effectively    adv. 事实上,有效地
rationale        n. 基本原理(理论基础的说明,原理的阐述) breed    n. 品种,族类 vt. 养育,繁殖,引起 vi. 繁殖
lean    n. 瘦肉,倾斜,弯曲 adj. 瘦的,贫乏的,歉收的 vi. 倚靠,倾斜,依赖 vt. 使倾斜
methodology n. 一套方法,方法学futility    n. 无用, 无益, 无价值idleness n.闲散,懒惰,赋闲无事
chaotic    adj. 混沌的;混乱的,无秩序的rigorous adj. 严厉的,严酷的,严格的,细致的variation        n. 变化,变动,变种,变奏曲
towering    adj. 高耸的, 激烈的,杰出的 动词 tower 的现在分词形式relentless    adj.不懈的; 坚韧的,不屈不挠的; 不间断的; 未减轻的heavy hand    严厉手段
event driven   [计]  事件驱动simplify v. 简化, 使单纯 vt. 简化unified    v. 统一 adj.  统一的willing    adj. 愿意的, 心甘情愿的beneficial        adj. 有益的,有利的iterative adj. 迭代的, 重复的
cadence n. 节奏, 韵律,降调句,抑扬顿挫
manifesto    n. 宣言, 声明 vi. 发表宣言
agile    adj. (动作)敏捷的,灵活的,(头脑)机灵的
uncover vt. 揭开,揭露
motivate    v. 给与动机,刺激,提高...的学习欲望
convey    vt. 传达,运输,转移 [计算机] 输送
measure    n. 措施, 办法, 量度, 尺寸 v. 测量, 量
constant    adj. 经常的, 不变的 n. 常数, 恒量
pace    n. 速度,步调,步法 vt. 踱步,调整节奏 vi. 缓慢地走
indefinitely    adv. 无限地(在长时期内,无穷地) agility    n. 敏捷, 灵活, 轻快
simplicity    n. 单纯, 简朴
interval n. 间隔,休息时间, (数学)区间, (音乐)音程backlog n. 积累(积压待办事项) vi. 把...积压起来
scrum    n. (橄榄球赛中)双方球员争球 n. 疯狂的马,多而乱的一群人
sole    adj. 唯一的, 独占的 n. 脚底, 鞋底; sole 或 soles 鳎鱼 vt. 给(鞋)换底
arguably adv. 可论证地,可辩论地
sprint    vi. 全力奔跑,冲刺 n. 短距离赛跑,冲刺 n. 斯普林特(财富 500 强公司之一,  总部所在地美国, 主要经营电讯)
 
temptation    n. 诱惑,引诱; 诱惑物facilitator    n. 帮助者,推进者empower    vt. 授与权力,增加自主权empowerment    n. 授权
up to date    adj. 最近的, 最新的comprise    vt. 包含,构成autonomy    n. 自治
increment    n. 增加(增加物, 增量, 余差) quantify v. 定量, 表示份量, 称量, 量化rectify    vt. 订正,矫正,改正
cope    v. (with)竞争,对抗,对付,妥善处理 vi. 对付,妥善处理
issue    n. 问题;流出;期号;发行物 vt. 发行,发布;发给;放出,排出 vi. 发行;流出; 造成…结果;传下
overhead    n. 经常开支,普通用费 adj. 在头上的,高架的 adv. 在头顶上,在空中,在高处
[计算机] 总开销
tempted to    被诱惑去做, 总想做
novice    n. 新手,初学者
frustrating    adj. 使人沮丧的,令人泄气的
demoralization    n.道德败坏,纪律松弛,士气消沉
inverse    adj. 相反的,倒转的 n. 相反的事物,(数学)逆反函数, 倒数, 负数conduct n. 行为, 举动, 品行 v. 引导,  指挥,  管理 vt.  导电,  传热regression    n. 复原,逆行,退步
regard    vt.认为; 注视; 涉及; 尊敬 vi.凝视; 留意 n.凝视; 留意; 尊敬; 问候
embody vt. 代表, 使具体化, 包含,使(精神)肉体化
entirety n. 全 部
distill    v. 蒸馏, 滴下,吸取,提炼
synthesize    v.  合成
comparison    n.  比较
informed    adj. 见多识广的 v. 通告,告发 vbl. 通告,告发
whereas conj.&adv. 然而,却,反之
albeit    conj. 虽然(即使)
mature adj. 成熟的, 到期的,  充分发育的,  考虑周到的 vt.  使...成熟,  长成 vi.  长成,  成熟; 到期
formulate    vt. 规划;用公式表示;明确地表达
complementary    adj. 补充的, 互补的
substitute    n. 代替者,代用品 v. 代替 vi. (for)代替 vt. 用...代替,代以
macro    adj. 巨大的,大范围的,总的 n. [计算机]宏tactical    adj. 战术上的, 战术性的, 足智多谋的abbreviate    vt. 缩写,缩短,使...简略
vitally    adv. 重要地,极其,生命攸关地
applicable    adj. 合适的,适用的
merit    n. 功绩, 价值,优点 v. 博得,值得或应得
stakeholder    n. 保管赌注的人, 利益相关者
 
Chapter 4 文化,组织和团队Culture,Organization and Teams (171
单词)

ultimately    adv. 最后,最终
climate    n. 气候, 风气, 气氛
infer    vt. 推断,猜测,暗示 vi. 推论
rite n. 仪式, 典礼
pattern    n. 图案, 式样, 典范 v. 以图案装饰; 仿造, 模仿
perceive v. 察觉, 感觉, 认知, 理解possess v. 持有,克制,为...着迷inclusion    n. 包含
diversity  n.  多样化,(人在种族、民族、宗教等方面的)多样性; 差异; 分歧 vt.  使不同,使多样化
forgiveness    n. 宽恕, 宽仁之心 动词 forgive 的名词形式
permission    n. 同意,许可,允许
capacity n. 能力, 容量, 容积; 资格, 职位 adj. (达到最大容量)满的endeavor    n. 努力, 尽力, 进取心 vt. 努力,尽力 vi. 企图, 谋求
garner    v. 贮藏, 积累, 得到 n.谷仓 Garner: 加纳(姓氏) Garner: 加纳,约翰·南希(1868-
1967),美国政治家,于 1933-1941 年任美国副总统
personal    adj. 私人的,个人的 n. (报刊的)私人专栏
failing    n. 失败, 缺点, 过失 prep. 如果没有,若无…时 动词 fail 的现在分词
passive    adj. 被动的,消极的 n. 被动性
motivate    v. 给与动机,刺激,提高...的学习欲望
intellectual    n. 有知识者,知识份子,凭理智做事者 adj. 智力的,知性的,聪明的
critically adv. 批评性地, 爱挑剔地, 重要地, 危急地
procurement n. 取得, 征购, 斡旋, 促成
vested    adj. [法律]既定的, 穿好衣服的 动词 vest 的过去式和过去分词
certified adj. 经证明合格的, 具有证明文件的
ensure    vt. 确定,保证,担保
hand down    把...传下来
akin    adj. 血族的, 同族的, 同种的
midwife n. 助产士, 接生婆mutually    adv. 互相地accountable    adj.  负有责任的
representation    n. 表示法,表现,陈述,答辩ideally    adv. 理想地, 完美地,观念上地contribution    n. 贡献,捐款(赠)
sought    vbl. 寻找,搜索(seek 的过去式和过去分词) trait    n. 特征,特点,特性,品质
desirable    adj. 值得有的,令人满意的,有吸引力的 n. 有吸引力的人
extensive    adj. 广泛的,广阔的
justify    vt. 替...辩护,证明...正当 n. 对齐 [计算机] 调整
 
engagement n. 诺言, 约会, 婚约, 交战, 雇用, (机器零件等)啮合greater    adj. 大的, 包括市区及郊区的
esteem    n. 尊敬 vt. 认为,尊敬
conflict    n.冲突; 战斗; 相互干扰; 矛盾 vi.抵触; 争斗; 战斗; 冲突
integrity n. 诚实, 正直, 完整, 完善
reputation    n. 声誉,好名声
impact    n. 冲击(力), 冲突, 影响(力) vt. 挤入, 压紧; 撞击; 对...发生影响
confidentiality        n. 秘而不宣, 保密interference    n. 冲突, 干涉 [计算机] 干涉adjourn v. 延期, 休会, 换地方
socialize vt. 使...社会化,使...社会主义化,使适应社会需要 vi. 交际
friction    n. 摩擦,摩擦力,分歧disband v. 解散,使退伍 v. 解散motivation    n.  动 机ownership    n.  所有权proximity        n. 接近,亲近
grid    n.格子,非实质的; 地图上的坐标方格; (输电线路、天然气管道等的)系统网络
merit    n. 功绩, 价值,优点 v. 博得,值得或应得
dedicate vt. 献出,提献辞,致力于
nominal adj. 名义上的,有名无实的,名词性的 n. 名词词组
torn    vbl. 撕开,扯裂(tear 的过去分词) liaison    n. 联络
advancement    n. 前进, 进步
in terms of    adj. 按照(依据,用...词句,用...来,通过) congruence    n. 适合,一致,相合性
turf    n. 草皮,泥炭,跑马场 v. 铺草皮 n. 地盘,势力范围
idle adj. 无目的的, 无聊的; 懒惰的, 闲散的; 无根据的 vt.虚度; 使空闲 vi. 不作事, 闲逛;
(机器)空转
frustrate    vt. 挫败,击败,破坏 adj. 无益的,挫败的,挫折的prescribe    vi. 规定,开药方 vt. 规定,命令,开处方 vigorous adj. 精力充沛的,元气旺盛的,有力的
facilitate vt. 帮助, 使...容易, 促进
sensory adj. 知觉的, 感觉的, 知觉器官的
ideation n. 构思能力, 思维能力, 构思过程
concrete    n. 水泥,混凝土 adj. 具体的,实在的,水泥的 vt. &vi. 凝结,结合
consumer    n. 消费者,用户,  消费品scamper n. 蹦跳 v. 奔跑,快跑 vi. 涉猎,浏览stimulus n. 刺激, 激励, 刺激品
substitute    n. 代替者,代用品 v. 代替 vi. (for)代替 vt. 用...代替,代以
verbalize        vt. 使变成动词(用词语描述,累赘) pertain    vi. 从属, 关于
pitfall    n. 陷阱,诱惑,阴谋
exploit    n. 功绩,勋绩 vt.&vi. 开发,利用,开拓
 
demographic 人口统计学的 adj. 人口的,人口统计的ethical    adj. 伦理的;道德的;凭处方出售的forecast n. 预测,预报 vt. &vi. 预测
aggregate    n. 合计, 总计, 集合体 adj. 合计的, 集合的, 聚合的 v. 聚集, 集合, 合计
divergent    adj. 分歧的
convergent    adj. 趋集于一点的,会聚性的,收敛的
inherently    adv.天性地,固有地
conservative adj. 保守的,守旧的 n. 保守派(党),保守的人
role    n. 角色,影响程度
cast    n. 演员阵容, 投掷 v. 投, 掷, 抛
clearly    adv. 清楚地
inherent adj. 内在的, 固有的cumulative    adj. 累积的,附加的realise    v.觉悟,明白
hurdle rate    停止投资率,最低预期资本回收率
accuracy    n. 准确(性), 精确度
breakeven    adj. 无亏损的, 无盈亏的, 无胜负的
capital    n. 首都,资本,大写字母 adj. 大写的,资本的,首要的
diffusion        n. 散布, 传播, 蔓延variation        n. 变化,变动,变种,变奏曲what if    如果...将会怎么样
relevant adj. 相关的, 切题的, 中肯的
wholesale    n. 批发 adj. 批发的, 大规模的, 草率的 adv. 大规模, 照批发, 草率地
receipt    n. 收据
outlay    n.  费用,  经费,  支出 v.  花费
rearrangement    n.  重新整理,调整
discount n. 折扣, 贴现率 vt. 打折扣, 贴现, 不重视,不全信 vi. 贴现, 减息贷款
equate    v. 同等看待, 使相等 vt. 等同, 使相等cash flow        (公司、政府等的)现金流转viability n.生存能力,发育能力
rigorous adj. 严厉的,严酷的,严格的,细致的
spreadsheet    电子表格, 数据表clarity    n. 清楚, 透明quantitative    adj. 数量的,定量的scale up 按比例增加
specification n. 规格,详述,详细说明书
augment    vt. 增加,补充 vi.扩大 n. 增加,补充物
maneuverability    n.可操作性,机动性
lack    vt.缺乏,缺少; 需要的东西 n.缺乏,不足,没有; 缺少的东西
tray    n. 盘,托盘,碟
secure    adj.安全的; 牢固的; 有把握的; 安心的 vt.保护; (使)获得; 使安全; 担保 vi.获得安全,变得安全; 安全,保险; 承保,担保; [航海学]停止工作
carnation    n. 康乃馨(一种花)
familiarity    n. 亲密, 熟悉, 精通,不拘礼节
 
downstream adv. 下游地 adj. 下游的quantification        n. 定量,量化, 以数量表示objectivity    n. 客观, 客观性
ergonomic    adj. 人类工程学的,人体工学的
fender    n. 挡泥板, 护舷的垫子等
grunge    n. [俚]肮脏,低下,令人讨厌的人 n. 垃圾摇滚
benchmark    n. 基准点, 标准检查程序, 参照点 vt.  检测(竞争对手的产品以比较和改进自身产品)
marginally    adv. 在边上, 边际地 形容词 marginal 的副词形式
attenuation    n.变薄,稀薄化,变细,衰减dropout n. 中途退出者
instill    v. 滴注,逐渐灌输(尤指思想或情感)
pride    n. 高傲,自豪,自尊,一群狮子 vt. 以...自豪
perception    n. 感知, 认识, 观念
tertiary    adj. 第三的,第三位的,第三世纪的 n. 臂翼,第三重音,第三会员
interrelationship    n. 相互关系
adequate    adj. 足够的, 充足的, 适当的, 能胜任的consensus    n. 共识,一致,合意 n. [生理]交感cumbersome adj. 笨重的
tedious    adj. 沉闷的, 单调乏味的exceptionally adv. 例外地,格外地,特别地recast    v. 彻底改动, 重做
characterize    vt. 表示...的典型,赋予...特色algorithmic    adj.[计]算法的,规则系统的inventive    adj. 善于创造的, 发明的spontaneous adj. 自发的, 自然产生的intuitive [计算机] 直觉的
contradiction  n.  反驳,矛盾,不一致,否认
aspect    n. 方面, 外貌,  外观;  方位,  方向trimming        n. 整顿, 休整, 装饰, 边角料, 微调prescriptive    adj. 规定的, 规范的, 约定俗成的warp    n. 弯,歪曲,乖僻 vt. 弄歪,翘曲
lid    n. 盖
somewhat    adv.稍微; 有点; 达到某种程度 n.少量; 某些数量; 某种程度
intertwine    v. 纠缠, 缠绕, 编结
slack    n. 松弛的部分, 松散, 淡季, 中止 adj.  松弛的,  不流畅的 vt.  使缓慢,  疏忽 vi.  变松弛, 逃避工作
parametric    adj.[数][物][晶]参(变) 数的,参(变)量的identification n. 身份的证明 n. 视为同一,证明同一,确认unforeseen    adj. 无法预料的
contingency    n. 偶然, 可能性, 意外事故, 可能发生的附带事件
measure    n. 措施, 办法, 量度, 尺寸 v. 测量, 量
vitality    n. 活力, 生命力
measurement    n. 测量,衡量,尺寸,大小
 
ample    adj. 充足的,丰富的,宽敞的
literature    n. 文学, 文献
formal    adj. 正式的,形式的,礼节上的,拘谨的 n. 正式(活动)
session    n.开会,会议;(法庭的)开庭; 会期,学期; (进行某活动连续的)一段时间
lagging    n. 绝热材料,支拱板条 adj. 落后的,慢的, 迟缓的 动词 lag 的现在分词
bear    n. 熊 v. 忍受,负荷 v. 结果实,生子女
toolbox n.工具箱


Chapter 5 Tools and metrics (pls ref Chapter 4) (0 单词)

我整理的时候误把第五章的内容都放进第四章了,扇贝又不支持修改,所以如果您已经看完第四章的话,那么恭喜您,第五章的所有单词您都已经掌握了。


Chapter 6 市场调研 Market research (92 单词)

multivariate    adj.[统][数]多变量的,多元的scenario n. 情节梗概, 剧本
inform    vt.通知; 使活跃,使充满; 预示 vi.通知; 告发
elicit    vt. 引出,诱探出
indirect adj. 间接的, 迂回的,次要的,不坦率的,欺骗的
articulate    adj. 有关节的,发音清晰的 vt. &vi. 以关节连接,接合,明白地说
refinement    n. 精致, 高尚, 精巧
source    n. 来源 v.(从…)获得,网络:源极;资料来源;起源interpret        v. 解释, 演出, 翻译 [计算机] 解释
interpretation    n. 解释,演出,翻译,互動
statistical    adj. 统计的, 统计学的
mean    n.平均值, 平均数; 中部 adj. 低劣的, 卑贱的;  卑鄙的;  吝啬的 adj.  平均的,  中等的 v. 意味, 想要, 意欲
variance n. 不一致, 变化; [数]方差
ill-informed    adj. 消息不灵通的, 所知不多的
confidence    n.信心; 信任; 秘密
conduct n. 行为, 举动, 品行 v. 引导, 指挥, 管理 vt. 导电, 传热
respondent    n.回答者; [法](特指离婚诉讼的)被告; [生]反应,反射 adj.应答的; 有反应的; [法]被告的
interval n. 间隔,休息时间, (数学)区间, (音乐)音程confident    adj. 确信的, 自信的
subset    n. 子集
meant    动词 mean 的过去式和过去分词形式
unbiased    adj. 公正的
elimination    n. 除去, 消除
precision    n. 精确,精密度 adj. 以精准的执行而著称的, 经得起极精细测量的
 
stratified    v. 分层 adj. 成层的
strata    n. 地层 名词 stratum 的复数形式
stratum n. 地层, 阶层
variable adj. 可变的,易变的 n. 变量, 易变的东西homogeneous    adj. 同种的,同质的,均质的cluster    n. 串,丛,群 v. 聚合,成串,丛生,使...聚集manner n. 样子,礼貌,风格,方式
moderator    n. 调解人, 仲裁人 n. 减速剂 (降低自由中子在核反应堆中速度的物质,  让中子更可能使铀 235 原子裂变, 而较少被铀 238 原子吸收)
adjacent adj. 毗连的,邻近的,接近的unfiltered    adj. 未滤过的questionnaire        n.  调查表suppress    vt. 镇压,使...止住,禁止applicable    adj. 合适的,适用的
finding    n.  发现,  发现物,调查(或研究)的结果,[律]  裁判,裁决 (复数)findings:(珠宝商等使用的)零碎的工具或材料 find 的现在分词
watch out    当心, 提防
yet adv. 还,仍然,即刻 conj. 尽管,然而
paradigm    n. 例子,模范,词形变化表
proposition    n.  (难办或诱人的)事情,任务;见解;观点;(美国的)法律修正案;提议;建议;提案 vt. 向…提出下流的要求;向…提出猥亵的要求
debriefing    n.任务报告, 任务报告中提出的情报 动词 debrief 的现在分词形式
vendor    n. 厂商, 小贩, 卖主, 自动售货机 =vender
premise vt. 引出,预先提出;作为…的前提 n. 前提;上述各项;房屋连地基 vi. 作出前提
cohesion    n. 凝聚力, 团结
detrimental    adj. 有害的 n. 有害的人或事
enlist    v. 徵募, 参与, 支持
requisite    adj. 必要的, 需要的 n. 必需品
ethnographic adj. 民族志学的,人种志学的 =ethnographical ,ethnographic market research
移情市场研究
utilize    vt. 利用
immerse    vt. 浸,陷入
dilemma    n. 困境,进退两难
survey    n. 调查; 纵览, 视察, 测量 vt. 审视, 视察, 通盘考虑, 调查; 勘测 vi. 测量, 勘测
raft  n.  筏,  救生艇,  大量 v.   乘筏,  制成筏medium n. 媒体, 方法, 媒介 adj. 适中的, 中等的notoriously    adv. 臭名昭著地,众所周知地
shun    v.   避开,  规避,  避免averse    adj.   厌恶的,   反对的boast    n. 吹牛 vt. &vi. 吹牛,自夸
subject    n. 科目, 主题; 缘由 n. (君主国)国民; 实验对象 adj. 服从的,  易患的 vt.  使隶属, 使服从; 使遭遇
assign    v. 分配,指派 n.[计算机] DOS 命令将驱动器符重指向第二个驱动器符
inference    n. 推理,推论
 
canvas    n.  帆布,(帆布)画布,油画 instrumental adj. 仪器的,器具的,可做为手段的texture    n. 质地;纹理;结构;本质,实质geographic    adj.地理学的,地理的
expenditure    n. (时间、劳力、金钱等)支出,使用,消耗predictor    n. 预言者
regression    n. 复原,逆行,退步
similarity    n. 相似, 类似
substitutable adj. 可代替的, 可替换的, 可取代的
rate    n. 比率, 等级, 价格 vt. 估价, 认为, 定等级; 责骂 vi. 受欢迎, 受推崇; 责骂
resultant    adj. 作为结果的,合成的 n. 结果, 产物,[数学] 合矢量,结式
bundle    n. 捆,束,一批,一大笔钱 vt. 捆,匆匆送走,附赠 vi. 匆忙rollover n. 滚动翻转,倾翻,翻转砂箱,转台 n. [经]转滚法subconscious adj. 潜意识的,下意识的 n. 潜意识
neat    adj. 整洁的, 巧妙的, 端正的, 极好的, 纯的 adv. 整齐地
sheer    adj. 绝对的,全然的,峻峭的 vt. &vi. 急转,躲避 adv. 完全,全然,峻峭 n. 转向,(甲板的)脊弧,透明薄织物
compensate    vt. &vi. 偿还,补偿,付报酬
perspective    n. 远景, 看法, 透视 adj. 透视的
ticker    n. 滴答作响的东西 n. 股票行情自动收录器 n. <俚语> 表 n. <俚语>  心脏
nugget    n.  金属块,珍品,珍闻,(鸡)块
vein    n. 静脉,纹路,岩脉,情绪,风格,气质 vt. 饰以纹路
mobilisation    n.动员,运用
strand    n.(绳子的)股,绞; 海滨,河岸; (思想等的)一个组成部分 vt.使滞留,使搁浅; 使陷于困境 vi.搁浅; 陷入困境
remedy n. 药物,治疗法,补救 vt. 治疗,补救,矫正unmet    adj. 未满足的, 未相遇的, 未应付的embark vt. &vi. 乘船,着手,从事
ethic    n. 道德规范, 伦理
consent n. 同意, 许可 v. 同意, 承诺
prompt adj.  迅速的,  敏捷的,  立刻的 vt.  激起,  促进,  推动;  提示 vi.  提示 n.  提示;  提示的内容 n. [商]付款期限


Chapter 7 生命周期管理 Life Cycle Management (64 单词)

sustainable    adj. 可以忍受的;足可支撑的;养得起的;可持续的
deletion n. 删 除
penetration    n. 渗透,侵入,突破,
skim    vt. 撇去浮沫,略读,掠过,滑过 vi. 掠过,覆盖了一层浮沫,侵吞钱财 n. 一层浮沫,略读,脱脂物 adj. 撇去浮沫的,由脱脂乳做的
distribution    n. 分发, 分配, 散布, 分布
intensive    adj. 强烈的, 密集的, 精细的, 强调的 n. (语法)强调成份
 
incentive    adj. 刺激的, 鼓励的 n. 刺激, 鼓励, 动机rejuvenate    v. 使...年轻, 使...恢复精神,变年轻liquidate    v. 偿付, 清算, 扫除 v. 清算, 整理, 破产projection    n. 发射,计划,突出部分
whilst    conj. 当...时, 可是, 虽然,只要
proportion    n. 比例,均衡,部分 vt. 使成比例,使均衡,分摊refreshment    n. 恢复,精神爽快,提神之事物;点心,茶点chasm    n. 深坑, 裂口,分歧
iterative adj. 迭代的, 重复的
vice    n. 恶习,恶行,罪恶,缺陷,恶癖,老虎钳 vt. 钳住 prep. 代替,副,次
versa    adj. 反
compact    adj. 紧凑的,紧密的,简洁的 v. 使装满,使简洁
algorithm    n. 算法
refine    vt. 精炼,净化,使优雅 vi. 被提纯,改进
tenant    n. 房客,佃户 vt. 居住propensity    n. 倾向,习性concentration        n. 集中, 专心, 浓度beachhead    n.滩头阵地,立足点
rollout    n. 首次展示 n. (美式橄榄球)四分卫突破战术sophisticate    n. 久经世故的人 vt. 玩弄诡辩,掺合,弄复杂sturdy    adj. 强健的, 健全的
durable adj. 耐用持久的 n. (复)耐用品
perishable    adj. 易腐烂的, 会枯萎的, 会死的 (复数)perishables:易腐烂的东西(尤指食物)
outlet n. 出口, 出路, 通风口, 批发商店convey vt. 传达,运输,转移 [计算机] 输送resonate    v. 产生共鸣
recognition    n. 认出,承认, 感知,知识
compromising    adj. 折衷的 动词 compromise 的现在分词
externality    n. 外表,外在性,外部的事物
in place 在适当的位置
benign    adj. 仁慈的,温和的,良性的
complimentary    adj. 问候的,称赞的,夸奖的,免费赠送的
transparency n. 透明度, 幻灯片
cradle    n. 摇篮, 发祥地, 摇篮时代 v. 放在摇篮内, 抚育, 刈割
circular    adj. 循环的,圆形的 n. 传单,通报
finite    adj. 有限的
disassemble    v. 解开,分解,拆卸
compliant    adj. 服从的, 顺从的
shape    n. 形状,形式,定形,身材 vt. 定形,使...成形,塑造credit    n. 信用, 荣誉, 贷款, 学分 v. 归功于, 赞颂, 信任prominence    n. 突出;显著;突出物;卓越
precursor    n. 先驱者,前导,先进者
detergent    n. 清洁剂 adj. 用于清洗的
 
aid n. 帮助,救护,辅助物 vt. &vi. 援助,帮助,救护 abbr.=Agency for International Development
国际开发署[美]
scare    vt. 惊吓(惊恐,惊慌) vi. 受惊吓 n. 惊吓(惊恐,惊慌) disposal n. 处理,消除,销毁,处置 n. 弃菜碾碎器
focal    adj. 焦点的scientific        adj. 科学的declaration    n. 宣布, 宣言
depletion    n. 消耗,罄尽,放血
peer    vi. 凝视,盯着看;窥视 vt. 封为贵族;与…同等 n. 贵族;同等的人
encompass    vt. 围绕(包围, 拥有, 完成) ore n. 矿, 矿石
extraction    n. 抽出, 取出, 抽出物 n.血统accreditation n. 委派, 信赖
transparent    adj. 透明的, 明显的, 清晰的
convince    vt. 说服, 使...相信
transportation    n. 运输, 运输系统, 运输工具

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